Visual–perceptual abilities were assessed in 5-year-old children with the following neonatal neurological conditions: born preterm with normal ultrasound scan (NL, n=17); born preterm with ultrasound diagnosis of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH, n=17); born preterm with ultrasound diagnosis of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, n=12); born term with hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE, n=11). Visual–perceptual ability was evaluated with the L94: eight visual–perceptual tasks designed to evaluate different aspects of visual perception at the preschool level in children with multiple disabilities. Impairment was established in comparison to the performance age obtained on non-verbal intelligence subtests, instead of chronological age. Frequency of L94 impairment was highest in children with PVL, while children with IVH did not differ from the NL control group. Impairment rates were increased also in children with transient periventricular echodensities, and in children with HIE. Impairments were only moderately related to the delay of visual acuity maturation in infancy.