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Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Thin tantalum nitride films were grown on fused quartz by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) while varying the fractional N2 flow rate at fixed substrate temperature of 400°C. The film properties were compared to films grown by conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) at similar conditions. Structural characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction and reflection methods. The HiPIMS process produces slightly less dense films than does dcMS and the surface roughness is similar for both the HiPIMS and dcMS grown films. The deposition rate for HiPIMS is up to 80 % lower than for dcMS but it can be roughly doubled by lowering the magnetic field strength by 30 %.
Thin TiN films were grown on SiO2 by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at range of temperatures from 45 to 600oC and the properties compared. The HiPIMS process produces denser films at lower growth temperature than does dcMS and the surface is much smoother for films grown by the HiPIMS process. The grain sizes of both orientations are smaller in HiPIMS grown films than in dcMS grown films. The  crystallites have smaller size than the  crystallites for all growth temperatures. For the dcMS process the grain size increases with increased growth temperature for both the  and  crystallites. For the HiPIMS process the  grain size increases monotonically with increased growth temperature, whereas the size of the  oriented grains decreases to a minimum for growth temperature of 400 oC after which it starts to increase with growth temperature.
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