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There is growing concern about the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on psychiatric teaching and psychiatric professionalism as a whole. As a consequence, several national and international medical and psychiatric associations have issued guidelines to regulate the interactions between physicians and industry.
The EFPT-PRIRS study aims to provide the lacking data on the extent and nature of these interactions among psychiatric trainees across Europe.
Study objectives were determined by the EFPT research group (EFPT-RG), after discussion with national and international experts. A survey was then devised compiling previously published questionnaires extending them by questions with specific relevance to psychiatric trainees. The resulting questionnaire was piloted amongst members of the EFPT-RG, modified accordingly and subsequently distributed to the national study coordinators. All 24 EFPT member countries were invited to participate in the study and data collection is currently ongoing.
Preliminary analysis reveals the vast differences in industry - trainee relationships across European countries as well as major differences in personal attitudes towards these interactions.
EFPT-PRIRS will potentially have an impact on the regulation of the interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatric trainees.
The bony cochlear nerve canal is the space between the fundus of the internal auditory canal and the base of the cochlear modiolus that carries cochlear nerve fibres. This study aimed to determine the distribution of bony labyrinth anomalies and cochlear nerve anomalies in patients with bony cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal atresia and stenosis, and then to compare the diameter of the bony cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal with cochlear nerve status.
The study included 38 sensorineural hearing loss patients (59 ears) in whom the bony cochlear nerve canal diameter at the mid-modiolus was 1.5 mm or less. Atretic and stenotic bony cochlear nerve canals were examined separately, and internal auditory canals with a mid-point diameter of less than 2 mm were considered stenotic. Temporal bone computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed to determine cochlear nerve status.
Cochlear hypoplasia was noted in 44 out of 59 ears (75 per cent) with a bony cochlear nerve canal diameter at the mid-modiolus of 1.5 mm or less. Approximately 33 per cent of ears with bony cochlear nerve canal stenosis also had a stenotic internal auditory canal and 84 per cent had a hypoplastic or aplastic cochlear nerve. All patients with bony cochlear nerve canal atresia had cochlear nerve deficiency. The cochlear nerve was hypoplastic or aplastic when the diameter of the bony cochlear nerve canal was less than 1.5 mm and the diameter of the internal auditory canal was less than 2 mm.
The cochlear nerve may be aplastic or hypoplastic even if temporal bone computed tomography findings indicate a normal cochlea. If possible, patients scheduled to receive a cochlear implant should undergo both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone. The bony cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal are complementary structures, and both should be assessed to determine cochlear nerve status.
During an endoscopic arytenoidectomy, an intubation tube must be elevated anteriorly with the laryngoscope to ensure an adequate surgical field. This paper describes a new laryngoscope that has a canal along the outer wall of the body and a ridge which runs along the canal.
Ten patients underwent endoscopic total arytenoidectomy using this new laryngoscope and 10 patients underwent the same operation using a regular laryngoscope.
The duration of all operations ranged between 25 and 65 minutes, with a median duration of 42.5 minutes. The median duration with the new laryngoscope was 39 minutes, and that with the regular laryngoscope was 49 minutes; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05).
This new laryngoscope shortened the duration of the endoscopic arytenoidectomy and facilitated the procedure by enlarging the surgical field. This new laryngoscope may be a beneficial surgical instrument for posterior endoscopic laryngeal operations.
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