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With the aim of investigating fundamental properties and nano-imprintabilities of glassy alloy in the film form, Zr49Al11Ni8Cu32, Pd39Cu29Ni13P19 and Cu38Zr47Al9Ag6 alloy thin films were fabricated on Si substrate by a magnetron sputtering method. These thin films exhibit distinct glass-tradition phenomenon and large supercooled liquid region of about 80 K, confirming as a glassy structure and have very smooth surface and sufficient hardness to maintain imprinted shape, which are suitable for nano-imprint processing. Moreover, thermal nano-imprintabilies of these obtained films are demonstrated by using a dot array mold with a dot diameter of 90 nm and a pitch of 180 nm. Surface observations revealed that periodic nano-hole arrays were successfully imprinted on the surface of these films and precisely corresponded to the periodic dot pattern of the mold. Particularly, Pd-based glassy alloy thin film indicated more precise pattern imprintability, namely, more flat residual surface plane and sharper hole edge. These results suggest that these glassy alloy thin films, especially Pd-based glassy alloy thin film have high potential for application to the nano-imprinting materials.
A non-equilibrium Cu-Zr-Ag alloy was designed for the development of an alternative electric connector to Cu-Be alloys. This work aims at producing a Cu-Zr-Ag sheet using a hot-powder-rolling (HPR) process. The sheets were produced by a sequential process of HPR, pre-annealing, and cold rolling, using Cu93.5Zr5.5Ag1 (at.%) alloy powder produced by an argon gas atomization method. The Cu93.5Zr5.5Ag1 alloy sheet has a tensile strength of 1188 MPa and a conductivity of 33.2% IACS, which are similar values to those of Cu-Be alloys. In this paper, we optimize the conditions of the HPR process and reveal the correlation between the microstructure and properties of the Cu-Zr-Ag sheet produced by the HPR process. In addition, we discuss the alloy’s applicability for use as a connecter material.
Since 1988, it has been demonstrated that metallic glasses can be made in bulk form with diameters larger than several millimeters. At present, several alloy systems with maximum diameters for glass formation exceeding 1 cm are known. As a result, Zr-, Ti-, Fe-, Co-, Ni-, and Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are already in use for magnetic-sensing, chemical, and structural applications. In this article, recently developed BMGs with critical diameters of more than 1 cm are summarized, and some of their industrial applications are reviewed.
This article presents a comparative study of the deformation-induced structural changes observed within a glassy phase in two different Zr- and Ni-based alloys. Ductile Zr65Al7.5Ni10Pd17.5 bulk glassy alloy, which exhibits dynamic nanocrystallization forming a crystalline cubic phase within shear bands on plastic deformation, is presumed to contain pre-existing nuclei. On the contrary, no obvious dynamic nanocrystallization is observed within the shear bands in the glassy phase of the Ni50Pd30P20 bulk alloy, which, however, contains clear medium-range order zones on the order of 1 nm in size in an as-solidified state. This alloy exhibits nucleation and growth-transformation behavior on heating. At the same time, clear nucleation and growth of the cubic Ni-based phase are observed near the microcrack area in the deformed sample. High energy released at the time of the microcrack propagation caused nanocrystallization and blockage of the crack-tip propagation.
By use of excellent properties of bulk metallic glasses, some industrial products were practically prepared and their performances were investigated. Linear actuator constructed by a set of Fe-based BMG yokes generates large Lorentz force due to the large permeability and saturation magnetization of the BMG. Ni-based BMG microgear prepared by injection casting exhibits nano-imprintability against the surface roughness of mold. The newly developed alloy with a nominal atomic composition of Ti52Cu23Ni11Mo7Fe7 exhibits high yield strength of 1250 MPa, high fracture strength of 2740 MPa and large plastic elongation of over 20 %. These results for the industrial products made of BMGs are promising for future developments as industrial materials with high performance.
Glass-forming ability, thermal stability and nucleation behavior of a Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 alloy prepared using a high purity polycrystalline phosphorus are investigated. The critical cooling rate for glass formation for the high purity alloy is the same as that for the previous result, but the improvement of undercooling reaches about 80 K as compared with the fluxed ordinary alloy. In comparison with the non-fluxed alloy, the solidified structure of the present highly purified alloy is significantly different. The non-fluxed sample shows the characteristic “island-like” structure consisted of acicular fcc-Pd2Ni2P solid solution and Cu3Pd intermetallic compound. These acicular phases appear to be caused by the growth of quenched-in nuclei. In the isothermal experiment, nucleus density exhibits time dependence even at 683 K near the nose temperature. It is assumed that the crystallization behavior for the highly purified alloy is closer to homogeneous nucleation from quenched-in nuclei dominant behavior. In order to investigate the nucleation behavior, in-situ TEM observation was carried out. Spherical Pd15P2 particle with a diameter about 15 nm is observed, and this spherical region repeats generation and annihilation during isothermal annealing. The reason for the high glass-forming ability is discussed on the basis of the obtained results.
Crystallization mechanism and kinetics of a Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 glass was investigated in a wide temperature range from 603 (near the glass transition temperature) to 764 K (near the equilibrium melting temperature) by using an isothermal annealing treatment for nucleation and growth. The nucleus density (nv) is about 5 × 1013 nuclei/m3 and is independent of annealing temperature. Therefore, it is assumed that the crystallization of the alloy was dominated by heterogeneous nucleation due to “quenched-in nuclei”. On the other hand, the crystal growth rate (Uc) increases from 1.07 × 10− to 5.68 × 10−5 m/s with rising annealing temperature from 603 to 764 K. These values of Uc are 2–3 orders of magnitude larger than the calculated Uc on the basis of Classical Nucleation and Growth Theory (CNT). Furthermore, the glass-forming ability of the alloy will be discussed in the framework of the present results.
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