We have observed visible photoluminescence (PL) spectra (peak energy: 3.1 eV) of size-controlled silicon (Si) nanoparticles annealed in oxygen gas. The PL peak energy did not depend on the temperature, and the PL lifetime was relatively fast (on the order of nanoseconds). It was inferred that the visible PL was attributed to localized states in the oxidized surfaces of size-controlled Si nanoparticles. We also observed the PL excitation spectra and studied the excitation process. In order to elucidate mechanisms of the visible PL, excitation and recombination processes are discussed.