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Historically, neurology has been primarily an outpatient specialty. The advent of modern neurosurgical techniques, as well as more elegant means of artificial ventilation in the 1960s, brought increasing numbers of neurologic patients to the intensive care units (ICUs). Although these patients were primarily managed by medical and surgical-anesthesiologist intensivists, occasional consults for neurophysiologic testing, management of neuromuscular failure, and, more commonly, prognostication, would bring a neurologist to the ICU. In the 1980s and 1990s, the surge in new neurosurgical procedures created an interest by some neurologists in cerebrovascular disease, while others ventured into the ICUs and carved a niche for a new subspecialty: neurocritical care .