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To integrate the uneven terrain adaptivity of legged robots and the fast capacity of wheeled robots on even terrains, a four wheel-legged robot is addressed and the cooperative control strategy of wheels and legs based on attitude balance is investigated. Firstly, the kinematics of wheel-legged robot is analyzed, which contains the legged and wheeled motion modal. Secondly, the cooperative control strategy of wheel-legged robot based on attitude balance is proposed. The attitude is calculated by using the quaternion method and complementary filtering, and the attitude stability control of the wheel-legged robot is studied. The trajectory planning of leg motion including walk and trot gait is implemented, and the differential control of wheeled motion is deduced. And then, the cooperative motion control of wheels and legs is achieved by keeping the attitude balance of robot body. Finally, a small prototype is set up to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed method. The experimental results show that the established wheel-legged robot can do walk, trot, and wheel-leg compound motion to overcome many complex terrains and environments.
There is little evidence in China regarding the cost-effectiveness of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome (DS). This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NIPT and provide evidence to inform decision-making.
To determine the cost-effectiveness of NIPT for DS, a decision-analytic model was developed using the TreeAge Pro software from a societal perspective in a simulated cohort of 10 000 pregnant women. Main indicators were based on field surveys from sampled hospitals in four locations in China and a literature review.
The conventional maternal serum screening (CMSS) strategy, contingent screening strategy (NIPT delivered to high risk pregnant women after CMSS), and universal screening strategy could prevent 3.02, 7.53, and 9.97 DS births, respectively. NIPT would decrease unnecessary invasive procedures, resulting in fewer procedure-related miscarriages. The cost-effectiveness ratio of the contingent screening strategy was the lowest. When compared with the CMSS strategy, the incremental cost per DS birth averted by the contingent screening strategy and universal screening strategy were USD 20,160 and 352,388, respectively. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that, if the cost of NIPT could be decreased to USD 76.92, the cost-effectiveness ratio of the universal screening strategy would be lower than the CMSS strategy.
Although NIPT has the merits of greater effectiveness and safety, CMSS is unlikely to be replaced by NIPT at this time because of NIPT's higher cost. Contingent screening may be an appropriate strategy to balance the effectiveness and cost factors of the new genetic testing technology.
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