To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Bragg scattering of nonlinear surface waves over a wavy bottom is studied using two-dimensional fully nonlinear numerical wave tanks (NWTs). In particular, we consider cases of high nonlinearity which lead to complex wave generation and transformations, hence possible multiple Bragg resonances. The performance of the NWTs is well verified by benchmarking experiments. Classic Bragg resonances associated with second-order triad interactions among two surface (linear incident and reflected waves) and one bottom wave components (class I), and third-order quartet interactions among three surface (linear incident and reflected waves, and second-order reflected/transmitted waves) and one bottom wave components (class III) are observed. In addition, class I Bragg resonance occurring for the second-order (rather than linear) transmitted waves, and Bragg resonance arising from quintet interactions among three surface and two bottom wave components, are newly captured. The latter is denoted class IV Bragg resonance which magnifies bottom nonlinearity. It is also found that wave reflection and transmission at class III Bragg resonance have a quadratic rather than a linear relation with the bottom slope if the bottom size increases to a certain level. The surface wave and bottom nonlinearities are found to play opposite roles in shifting the Bragg resonance conditions. Finally, the results indicate that Bragg resonances are responsible for the phenomena of beating and parasitic beating, leading to a significantly large local free surface motion in front of the depth transition.
COVID-19 is erupting globally, and Wuhan successfully controlled it within a month. Infections arose from infectious persons outside hospitals. After data revision, data-based and model-based analyses were implemented, and the conclusions are as follows. The incubation period of most infected people may be 6-7 days. The number of infectious persons outside hospitals in Wuhan on January 20, 2020 was about 10000 and reached more than 20000 on the day of Lockdown; it exceeded 72000 on February 4. Both data-based and model-based analyses gave out the evolution of the reproduction number, which was over 2.5 in early January, went down to 1.62 in late January and 1.20 in early February, with a sudden drop to less than 0.5 due to the strict Stay-at-home management after February 11. Strategies of Stay-at-home, Safe-protective measures, and Ark hospitals were the main contributions to control COVID-19 in Wuhan. In Wuhan, 2 inflection points of COVID-19, exactly correspond to February 5 and February 15, the 2 days when Ark hospitals were introduced, and the complete implementation of Stay-at-home. Based on the expression of the reproduction number, group immunity is also discussed. It shows that only when the group immunization rate is over 75% can COVID-19 be under control; group immunity would be full infection and the total deaths will be 220000 for a city as big as Wuhan. Sensitivity analysis suggests that 30% of people staying at home in combination with better behavior changes, such as social-distancing and frequent handwashing, can effectively contain COVID-19. However, only when this proportion is over 60% can the controlled effect and efficiency like Wuhan be obtained.
A new system for preparing 14C samples was established for a compact accelerator mass spectrometer (GXNU-AMS) at Guangxi Normal University. This sample preparation system consists of three units: a vacuum maintenance unit, a CO2 purification unit, and a CO2 reduction unit, all of which were made of quartz glass. A series of radiocarbon (14C) preparation experiments were conducted to verify the reliability of the system. The recovery rate of graphite obtained was more than 80%. The carbon content in the commercial toner and wood sample was linearly fitted to the CO2 pressure in the measurement unit of the system. The results showed a good linear relationship, indicating that the reliability of the sample preparation system. AMS measurements were conducted on a batch of standard, wood, and dead graphite samples prepared using this system. The results showed that the beam current of 12C- for each sample was more than 40 μA, the carbon contamination introduced during the sample preparation process was ∼ 2 × 10–15, and that the new sample preparation system is compact, low-contamination, and efficient and meets the GXNU-AMS requirements for 14C samples.
Many waterflooding oil fields, injecting water into an oil-bearing reservoir for pressure maintenance, are in their middle to late stages of development. To explore the geological conditions and improve oilfield recovery of the most important well group of the Hu 136 block, located on the border areas of three provinces (Henan, Shandong, and Hebei), Zhongyuan Oilfield, Sinopec, central China, a 14C cross-well tracer monitoring technology was developed and applied in monitoring the development status and recognize the heterogeneity of oil reservoirs. The tracer response in the production well was tracked, and the water drive speed, swept volume of the injection fluid were obtained. Finally, the reservoir heterogeneity characteristics, such as the dilution coefficient, porosity, permeability, and average pore-throat radius, were fitted according to the mathematical model of the heterogeneous multi-layer inter-well theory. The 14C-AMS technique developed in this work is expected to be a potential analytical method for evaluating underground reservoir characteristics and providing crucial scientific guidance for the mid to late oil field recovery process.
Accurate geometrical calibration between the scan coordinates and the camera coordinates is critical in four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D-STEM) for both quantitative imaging and ptychographic reconstructions. For atomic-resolved, in-focus 4D-STEM datasets, we propose a hybrid method incorporating two sub-routines, namely a J-matrix method and a Fourier method, which can calibrate the uniform affine transformation between the scan-camera coordinates using raw data, without a priori knowledge of the crystal structure of the specimen. The hybrid method is found robust against scan distortions and residual probe aberrations. It is also effective even when defects are present in the specimen, or the specimen becomes relatively thick. We will demonstrate that a successful geometrical calibration with the hybrid method will lead to a more reliable recovery of both the specimen and the electron probe in a ptychographic reconstruction. We will also show that, although the elimination of local scan position errors still requires an iterative approach, the rate of convergence can be improved, and the residual errors can be further reduced if the hybrid method can be firstly applied for initial calibration. The code is made available as a simple-to-use tool to correct affine transformations of the scan-camera coordinates in 4D-STEM experiments.
Previous analyses of grey and white matter volumes have reported that schizophrenia is associated with structural changes. Deep learning is a data-driven approach that can capture highly compact hierarchical non-linear relationships among high-dimensional features, and therefore can facilitate the development of clinical tools for making a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of schizophrenia.
To identify consistent grey matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, 662 people with schizophrenia and 613 healthy controls were recruited from eight centres across China, and the data from these independent sites were used to validate deep-learning classifiers.
We used a prospective image-based meta-analysis of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry. We also automatically differentiated patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls using combined grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumetric features, incorporated a deep neural network approach on an individual basis, and tested the generalisability of the classification models using independent validation sites.
We found that statistically reliable schizophrenia-related grey matter abnormalities primarily occurred in regions that included the superior temporal gyrus extending to the temporal pole, insular cortex, orbital and middle frontal cortices, middle cingulum and thalamus. Evaluated using leave-one-site-out cross-validation, the performance of the classification of schizophrenia achieved by our findings from eight independent research sites were: accuracy, 77.19–85.74%; sensitivity, 75.31–89.29% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.797–0.909.
These results suggest that, by using deep-learning techniques, multidimensional neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia are capable of robustly discriminating patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls, findings which could facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment in schizophrenia.
Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LWM-GSs) play a crucial role in determining wheat flour processing quality. In this work, 35 novel LMW-GS genes (32 active and three pseudogenes) from three Aegilops umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14, UU) accessions were amplified by allelic-specific PCR. We found that all LMW-GS genes had the same primary structure shared by other known LMW-GSs. Thirty-two active genes encode 31 typical LMW-m-type subunits. The MZ424050 possessed nine cysteine residues with an extra cysteine residue located in the last amino acid residue of the conserved C-terminal III, which could benefit the formation of larger glutenin polymers, and therefore may have positive effects on dough properties. We have found extensive variations which were mainly resulted from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels) among the LMW-GS genes in Ae. umbellulata. Our results demonstrated that Ae. umbellulata is an important source of LMW-GS variants and the potential value of the novel LMW-GS alleles for wheat quality improvement.
Gut microbiome and dietary patterns have been suggested to be associated with depression/anxiety. However, limited effort has been made to explore the effects of possible interactions between diet and microbiome on the risks of depression and anxiety.
Using the latest genome-wide association studies findings in gut microbiome and dietary habits, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) analysis of gut microbiome and dietary habits was conducted in the UK Biobank cohort. Logistic/linear regression models were applied for evaluating the associations for gut microbiome-PRS, dietary habits-PRS, and their interactions with depression/anxiety status and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)/Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) score by R software.
We observed 51 common diet–gut microbiome interactions shared by both PHQ score and depression status, such as overall beef intake × genus Sporobacter [hurdle binary (HB)] (PPHQ = 7.88 × 10−4, Pdepression status = 5.86 × 10−4); carbohydrate × genus Lactococcus (HB) (PPHQ = 0.0295, Pdepression status = 0.0150). We detected 41 common diet–gut microbiome interactions shared by GAD score and anxiety status, such as sugar × genus Parasutterella (rank normal transformed) (PGAD = 5.15 × 10−3, Panxiety status = 0.0347); tablespoons of raw vegetables per day × family Coriobacteriaceae (HB) (PGAD = 6.02 × 10−4, Panxiety status = 0.0345). Some common significant interactions shared by depression and anxiety were identified, such as overall beef intake × genus Sporobacter (HB).
Our study results expanded our understanding of how to comprehensively consider the relationships for dietary habits–gut microbiome interactions with depression and anxiety.
This study aimed to determine the risk factors for chronic diseases and to identify the potential influencing mechanisms from the perspectives of lifestyle and dietary factors. The findings could provide updated and innovative evidence for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.
A cross-sectional study.
1005 adults from Yangpu district of Shanghai participated in the study, and responded to questions on dietary habits, lifestyle and health status.
Residents suffering from chronic diseases accounted for about 34·99 % of the respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, diet quality, amount of exercise and tea drinking were related to chronic diseases. Age > 60 and overeating (Diet Balance Index total score > 0) had negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease, while overexercise (Physical Activity Index > 17·1) and tea drinking had negative multiplicative interaction and negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease. Diet quality, physical activity and tea drinking were incomplete mediators of the relationship between types of medical insurance residents participating in and chronic diseases.
The residents in Yangpu District of Shanghai have a high prevalence of chronic diseases. Strengthening access of residents to health education and interventions to prevent chronic diseases and cultivating healthy eating and exercise habits of residents are crucial. The nutritional environment of the elderly population should be considered, and the reimbursement level of different types of medical insurance should be designed reasonably to improve the accessibility of medical and health services and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
Different from developed countries, there is a paucity of research examining how the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets relate to lipids in less-developed ethnic minority regions (LEMR). A total of 83 081 participants from seven ethnic groups were retrieved from the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study, which was conducted in less-developed Southwest China between May 2018 and September 2019. Multivariable linear regression models were then used to examine the associations of the DASH and alternative Mediterranean diet (AMED) scores, assessed by modified DASH score and AMED, as well as their components with total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and TC/HDL-cholesterol. The DASH scores were negatively associated with TC, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Comparing the highest quintiles with the lowest DASH scores, TC decreased 0·0708 (95 % CI −0·0923, −0·0493) mmol/l, HDL-cholesterol decreased 0·0380 (95 % CI −0·0462, −0·0299) mmol/l and TAG decreased 0·0668 (95 % CI −0·0994, −0·0341) mmol/l. The AMED scores were negatively associated with TC, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Comparing the highest quintiles with the lowest AMED scores, TC decreased 0·0816 (95 % CI −0·1035, −0·0597) mmol/l, LDL-cholesterol decreased 0·0297 (95 % CI −0·0477, −0·0118) mmol/l and HDL-cholesterol decreased 0·0275 (95 % CI −0·0358, −0·0192) mmol/l. Although both the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet were negatively associated with blood lipids, those associations showed different patterns in LEMR, particularly for TAG and HDL-cholesterol.
We present an unsupervised machine learning approach for segmentation of static and dynamic atomic-resolution microscopy data sets in the form of images and video sequences. In our approach, we first extract local features via symmetry operations. Subsequent dimension reduction and clustering analysis are performed in feature space to assign pattern labels to each pixel. Furthermore, we propose the stride and upsampling scheme as well as separability analysis to speed up the segmentation process of image sequences. We apply our approach to static atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images and video sequences. Our code is released as a python module that can be used as a standalone program or as a plugin to other microscopy packages.
Natural enemies that impact pest populations must be understood in order to build integrated pest control strategies and to understand the most important aspects affecting pest dynamics. Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey.) Bunge is an important perennial plant species extensively used in sand stabilization and wind prevention in arid areas. This study aimed to determine the main defoliators that damage H. ammodendron and the parasitoid complex associated with them. Twelve species of defoliators were found in Northern Xinjiang, and Teia dubia (Tauscher) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), Scrobipalpa sp. (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and Eucharia festiva Hüfnagel (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) were the dominant pests. T. dubia is the predominant defoliator with three generations a year. Northwest China, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean region are potentially suitable habitats for T. dubia in the world, while Xinjiang is the primary distribution area in China. Parasitoids belonging to seven species and four families were reared from the larvae of T. dubia, they were all endoparasitoids and koinobiont. Cotesia sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is the dominant parasitoid and prefer to parasitic in the 3rd–5th instar larvae. The present study provides the basis for understanding the species composition and natural enemies of lepidopteran defoliators. It will be an effective tool for the integrated pest management programs of H. ammodendron forest.
The North China Plain (NCP) is an important agricultural area, where conventional tillage (CT) is used year-round. However, long-term CT has damaged the soil structure, threatening agricultural sustainability. Since 2002, we have conducted a long-term tillage experiment in the NCP to explore the effects of different types of tillage on soil and crop yield. As part of long-term conservation tillage, we conducted a 2-year study in 2016/2017 to determine the impact of no tillage (NT), subsoiling (SS), rotary tillage (RT) and CT on soil aggregate distribution, aggregate-associated organic carbon (AOC), aggregate-associated microbial biomass carbon (AMBC), and maize yield. Compared to CT, NT increased the content of macro-aggregates (+4.8%), aggregate-AOC (+8.3%), and aggregate-AMBC (+18.3%), but decreased maize yield (−11.5%). SS increased the contents of macro-aggregates (+5%), aggregate-AOC (+14.7%), and aggregate-AMBC (+16%); although the yield increase was not significant (+0.22%), it had the highest economic benefit among the four tillage measures. RT had no significant advantage when considering the above soil variables; moreover, it reduced maize yield by 16.1% compared with CT. Overall, SS is a suitable tillage measure to improve soil macro-aggregate content, carbon content, yield, and economic benefit in the NCP area.
N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) regulates oocyte-to-embryo transition and the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the role of m6A methylation in porcine early embryonic development and its reprogramming characteristics in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos are yet to be known. Here, we showed that m6A methylation was essential for normal early embryonic development and its aberrant reprogramming in SCNT embryos. We identified a persistent occurrence of m6A methylation in embryos between 1-cell to blastocyst stages and m6A levels abruptly increased during the morula-to-blastocyst transition. Cycloleucine (methylation inhibitor, 20 mM) treatment efficiently reduced m6A levels, significantly decreased the rates of 4-cell embryos and blastocysts, and disrupted normal lineage allocation. Moreover, cycloleucine treatment also led to higher levels in both apoptosis and autophagy in blastocysts. Furthermore, m6A levels in SCNT embryos at the 4-cell and 8-cell stages were significantly lower than that in parthenogenetic activation (PA) embryos, suggesting an abnormal reprogramming of m6A methylation in SCNT embryos. Correspondingly, expression levels of m6A writers (METTL3 and METTL14) and eraser (FTO) were apparently higher in SCNT 8-cell embryos compared with their PA counterparts. Taken together, these results indicated that aberrant nuclear transfer-mediated reprogramming of m6A methylation was involved in regulating porcine early embryonic development.
To establish optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Chinese pregnant women by Chinese-specific BMI categories and compare the new recommendations with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 guidelines.
Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the OR, 95 % CI and the predicted probabilities of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The optimal GWG range was defined as the range that did not exceed a 1 % increase from the lowest predicted probability in each pre-pregnancy BMI group.
From nine cities in mainland China.
A total of 3731 women with singleton pregnancy were recruited from April 2013 to December 2014.
The optimal GWG (ranges) by Chinese-specific BMI was 15·0 (12·8–17·1), 14·2 (12·1–16·4) and 12·6 (10·4–14·9) kg for underweight, normal weight and overweight pregnant women, respectively. Inappropriate GWG was associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with women gaining weight within our proposed recommendations, women with excessive GWG had higher risk for macrosomia, large for gestational age and caesarean section, whereas those with inadequate GWG had higher risk for low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm delivery. The comparison between our proposed recommendations and IOM 2009 guidelines showed that our recommendations were comparable with the IOM 2009 guidelines and could well predict the risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Inappropriate GWG was associated with higher risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimal GWG recommendations proposed in the present study could be applied to Chinese pregnant women.
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of over 200 disorders with defects in the function and/or development of the immune system. Although early screening is imperative for improving therapeutic efficiency and preventing disease-associated morbidity, its widespread use has been limited, owing to the low incidence of PIDs. It is particularly important to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PIDs screening for newborns. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the existing cost-effectiveness evidence on newborn screening of PIDs and to provide reference for decision-makers in China and other developing countries.
We conducted a systematic review using three electronic databases (PubMed, CNKI, and CSPD) of cost and cost-effectiveness studies of PIDs screening published during 2000–2019. Two reviewers independently searched databases and screened titles, abstracts and full texts; a third reviewer resolved disputes when necessary. The initial search returned 124 references, of which 10 full articles were included in the review. Five of the studies conducted analyses using model-based techniques.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was the predominantly studied condition (80%). Most studies (70%) examined the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay. A healthcare system's perspective was commonly used (50%) for cost calculations, and most studies (50%) were US-based. The majority (67%) of the studies found the TREC assay an effective screening tool for SCID, but the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) varied across screening test specificity and disease incidence.
Evidence from the published literature demonstrated that newborn screening for PIDs generally appeared to be cost-effective, and most importantly, it is lifesaving and allows children with PIDs an opportunity to live a healthier life. However, the type of PIDs included in this study were limited and most studies were done in developed countries whose health systems are different from low-/middle-income countries (LMIC). Further research is required to identify the cost-effectiveness of PIDs screening both in developed and developing countries.
Based on the public data from the health departments of Tianjin and Shenzhen, we conducted a comparative analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic situation between these 2 cities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of public data in epidemic prevention and control of COVID-19, providing a scientific advice for the subsequent mitigation and containment of COVID-19 prevalence.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, leading to toxoplasmosis. Currently, the effective treatment for human toxoplasmosis is the combination of sulphadiazine and pyrimethamine. However, both drugs have serious side-effects and toxicity in the host. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new anti-T. gondii drugs with high potency and less or no side-effects. Our findings suggest that lumefantrine exerts activity against T. gondii by inhibiting its proliferation in Vero cells in vitro without being toxic to Vero cells (P ≤ 0.01). Lumefantrine prolonged mice infected with T. gondii from death for 3 days at the concentration of 50 μg L−1 than negative control (phosphate-buffered saline treated only), and reduced the parasite burden in mouse tissues in vivo (P ≤ 0.01; P ≤ 0.05). In addition, a significant increase in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production was observed in high-dose lumefantrine-treated mice (P ≤ 0.01), whereas interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-4 levels increased in low-dose lumefantrine-treated mice (P ≤ 0.01). The results demonstrated that lumefantrine may be a promising agent to treat toxoplasmosis, and more experiments on the protective mechanism of lumefantrine should be undertaken in further studies.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by extreme fatigue and disabling symptoms. Women with CFS often have a high risk of gynaecological problems such as irregular menstruation, endometriosis and pelvic pain and sexual dysfunction. Our previous results have shown that, in pregnant mice, CFS significantly decreased the progestational hormone level in serum, as well as learning and memory, and the function of the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. In addition, the F1 generation also suffered from congenital hypothyroidism. At present, there has been no report about placenta formation and embryonic development in pregnant mice with CFS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of CFS on the morphology, oxidative stress and Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway during placenta formation. In this study, we found that CFS decreased the number of implantation sites for blastocysts, and increased the number of absorbed, stillborn and malformed fetuses. The morphology and structure of the placenta were abnormal in pregnant mice with CFS. Further study found that the oxidative stress in serum, uterus and placenta was increased in pregnant mice with CFS, while the levels of antioxidase were decreased. CFS also inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway in the placenta. These results suggested that inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway and enhanced oxidative stress play an important role in abnormal placentation in pregnant mice with CFS.