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Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in nursing homes; national data describing facility-level antibiotic use are lacking. The objective of this analysis was to describe variability in antibiotic use in nursing homes across the United States using electronic health record orders.
A retrospective cohort study of antibiotic orders for 309,884 residents in 1,664 US nursing homes in 2016 were included in the analysis. Antibiotic use rates were calculated as antibiotic days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 resident days and were compared by type of stay (short stay ≤100 days vs long stay >100 days). Prescribing indications and the duration of nursing home-initiated antibiotic orders were described. Facility-level correlations of antibiotic use, adjusting for resident health and facility characteristics, were assessed using multivariate linear regression models.
In 2016, 54% of residents received at least 1 systemic antibiotic. The overall rate of antibiotic use was 88 DOT per 1,000 resident days. The 3 most common antibiotic classes prescribed were fluoroquinolones (18%), cephalosporins (18%), and urinary anti-infectives (9%). Antibiotics were most frequently prescribed for urinary tract infections, and the median duration of an antibiotic course was 7 days (interquartile range, 5–10). Higher facility antibiotic use rates correlated positively with higher proportions of short-stay residents, for-profit ownership, residents with low cognitive performance, and having at least 1 resident on a ventilator. Available facility-level characteristics only predicted a small proportion of variability observed (Model R2 version 0.24 software).
Using electronic health record orders, variability was found among US nursing-home antibiotic prescribing practices, highlighting potential opportunities for targeted improvement of prescribing practices.
To assess the national uptake of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) core elements of antibiotic stewardship in nursing homes from 2016 to 2018 and the effect of infection prevention and control (IPC) hours on the implementation of the core elements.
Retrospective, repeated cross-sectional analysis.
US nursing homes.
We used the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Long-Term Care Facility Component annual surveys from 2016 to 2018 to assess nursing home characteristics and percent implementation of the core elements. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate the association between weekly IPC hours and the implementation of all 7 core elements while controlling for confounding by facility characteristics.
We included 7,506 surveys from 2016 to 2018. In 2018, 71% of nursing homes reported implementation of all 7 core elements, a 28% increase from 2016. The greatest increases in implementation from 2016 to 2018 were in education (19%), reporting (18%), and drug expertise (15%). In 2018, 71% of nursing homes reported pharmacist involvement in improving antibiotic use, an increase of 27% since 2016. Nursing homes that reported at least 20 hours of IPC activity per week were 14% (95% confidence interval, 7%–20%) more likely to implement all 7 core elements when controlling for facility ownership and affiliation.
Nursing homes reported substantial progress in antibiotic stewardship implementation from 2016 to 2018. Improvements in access to drug expertise, education, and reporting antibiotic use may reflect increased stewardship awareness and resource use among nursing home providers under new regulatory requirements. Nursing home stewardship programs may benefit from increased IPC staff hours.
We describe differences between urinary tract infection treatment and events reported by nursing homes enrolled in the National Healthcare Safety Network. In 2017, almost 4 times as many antibiotic starts as infection events were reported, suggesting that opportunities exist for antibiotic stewardship and improvement of urinary tract infection reporting.
To test the feasibility of targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel caring for high-risk nursing-home residents to prevent Staphylococcus aureus acquisition in short-stay residents.
Uncontrolled clinical trial.
This study was conducted in 2 community-based nursing homes in Maryland.
The study included 322 residents on mixed short- and long-stay units.
During a 2-month baseline period, all residents had nose and inguinal fold swabs taken to estimate S. aureus acquisition. The intervention was iteratively developed using a participatory human factors engineering approach. During a 2-month intervention period, healthcare personnel wore gowns and gloves for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, and S. aureus acquisition was measured again. Whole-genome sequencing was used to assess whether the acquisition represented resident-to-resident transmission.
Among short-stay residents, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus acquisition rate decreased from 11.9% during the baseline period to 3.6% during the intervention period (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08–0.92; P = .026). The methicillin-susceptible S. aureus acquisition rate went from 9.1% during the baseline period to 4.0% during the intervention period (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.12–1.42; P = .15). The S. aureus resident-to-resident transmission rate decreased from 5.9% during the baseline period to 0.8% during the intervention period.
Targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, regardless of their S. aureus colonization status, is feasible and potentially decreases S. aureus acquisition and transmission in short-stay community-based nursing-home residents.
Background: With the emergence of antibiotic resistant threats and the need for appropriate antibiotic use, laboratory microbiology information is important to guide clinical decision making in nursing homes, where access to such data can be limited. Susceptibility data are necessary to inform antibiotic selection and to monitor changes in resistance patterns over time. To contribute to existing data that describe antibiotic resistance among nursing home residents, we summarized antibiotic susceptibility data from organisms commonly isolated from urine cultures collected as part of the CDC multistate, Emerging Infections Program (EIP) nursing home prevalence survey. Methods: In 2017, urine culture and antibiotic susceptibility data for selected organisms were retrospectively collected from nursing home residents’ medical records by trained EIP staff. Urine culture results reported as negative (no growth) or contaminated were excluded. Susceptibility results were recorded as susceptible, non-susceptible (resistant or intermediate), or not tested. The pooled mean percentage tested and percentage non-susceptible were calculated for selected antibiotic agents and classes using available data. Susceptibility data were analyzed for organisms with ≥20 isolates. The definition for multidrug-resistance (MDR) was based on the CDC and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control’s interim standard definitions. Data were analyzed using SAS v 9.4 software. Results: Among 161 participating nursing homes and 15,276 residents, 300 residents (2.0%) had documentation of a urine culture at the time of the survey, and 229 (76.3%) were positive. Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp, and Enterococcus spp represented 73.0% of all urine isolates (N = 278). There were 215 (77.3%) isolates with reported susceptibility data (Fig. 1). Of these, data were analyzed for 187 (87.0%) (Fig. 2). All isolates tested for carbapenems were susceptible. Fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility was most prevalent among E. coli (42.9%) and P. mirabilis (55.9%). Among Klebsiella spp, the highest percentages of non-susceptibility were observed for extended-spectrum cephalosporins and folate pathway inhibitors (25.0% each). Glycopeptide non-susceptibility was 10.0% for Enterococcus spp. The percentage of isolates classified as MDR ranged from 10.1% for E. coli to 14.7% for P. mirabilis. Conclusions: Substantial levels of non-susceptibility were observed for nursing home residents’ urine isolates, with 10% to 56% reported as non-susceptible to the antibiotics assessed. Non-susceptibility was highest for fluoroquinolones, an antibiotic class commonly used in nursing homes, and ≥ 10% of selected isolates were MDR. Our findings reinforce the importance of nursing homes using susceptibility data from laboratory service providers to guide antibiotic prescribing and to monitor levels of resistance.
Background: Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in nursing homes; urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent indication. Although there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of UTIs, various criteria have been developed to inform and standardize nursing home prescribing decisions, with the goal of reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Using different published criteria designed to guide decisions on initiating treatment of UTIs (ie, symptomatic, catheter-associated, and uncomplicated cystitis), our objective was to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing among NH residents. Methods: In 2017, the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) performed a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic use in 161 nursing homes from 10 states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. EIP staff reviewed resident medical records to collect demographic and clinical information, infection signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing documented on the day an antibiotic was initiated and 6 days prior. We applied 4 criteria to determine whether initiation of treatment for UTI was supported: (1) the Loeb minimum clinical criteria (Loeb); (2) the Suspected UTI Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation tool (UTI SBAR tool); (3) adaptation of Infectious Diseases Society of America UTI treatment guidelines for nursing home residents (Crnich & Drinka); and (4) diagnostic criteria for uncomplicated cystitis (cystitis consensus) (Fig. 1). We calculated the percentage of residents for whom initiating UTI treatment was appropriate by these criteria. Results: Of 248 residents for whom UTI treatment was initiated in the nursing home, the median age was 79 years [IQR, 19], 63% were female, and 35% were admitted for postacute care. There was substantial variability in the percentage of residents with antibiotic initiation classified as appropriate by each of the criteria, ranging from 8% for the cystitis consensus, to 27% for Loeb, to 33% for the UTI SBAR tool, to 51% for Crnich and Drinka (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Appropriate initiation of UTI treatment among nursing home residents remained low regardless of criteria used. At best only half of antibiotic treatment met published prescribing criteria. Although insufficient documentation of infection signs, symptoms and testing may have contributed to the low percentages observed, adequate documentation in the medical record to support prescribing should be standard practice, as outlined in the CDC Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for nursing homes. Standardized UTI prescribing criteria should be incorporated into nursing home stewardship activities to improve the assessment and documentation of symptomatic UTI and to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
Background: Shared Healthcare Intervention to Eliminate Life-threatening Dissemination of MDROs in Orange County, California (SHIELD OC) was a CDC-funded regional decolonization intervention from April 2017 through July 2019 involving 38 hospitals, nursing homes (NHs), and long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) to reduce MDROs. Decolonization in NH and LTACHs consisted of universal antiseptic bathing with chlorhexidine (CHG) for routine bathing and showering plus nasal iodophor decolonization (Monday through Friday, twice daily every other week). Hospitals used universal CHG in ICUs and provided daily CHG and nasal iodophor to patients in contact precautions. We sought to evaluate whether decolonization reduced hospitalization and associated healthcare costs due to infections among residents of NHs participating in SHIELD compared to nonparticipating NHs. Methods: Medicaid insurer data covering NH residents in Orange County were used to calculate hospitalization rates due to a primary diagnosis of infection (counts per member quarter), hospital bed days/member-quarter, and expenditures/member quarter from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the second quarter of 2019. We used a time-series design and a segmented regression analysis to evaluate changes attributable to the SHIELD OC intervention among participating and nonparticipating NHs. Results: Across the SHIELD OC intervention period, intervention NHs experienced a 44% decrease in hospitalization rates, a 43% decrease in hospital bed days, and a 53% decrease in Medicaid expenditures when comparing the last quarter of the intervention to the baseline period (Fig. 1). These data translated to a significant downward slope, with a reduction of 4% per quarter in hospital admissions due to infection (P < .001), a reduction of 7% per quarter in hospitalization days due to infection (P < .001), and a reduction of 9% per quarter in Medicaid expenditures (P = .019) per NH resident. Conclusions: The universal CHG bathing and nasal decolonization intervention adopted by NHs in the SHIELD OC collaborative resulted in large, meaningful reductions in hospitalization events, hospitalization days, and healthcare expenditures among Medicaid-insured NH residents. The findings led CalOptima, the Medicaid provider in Orange County, California, to launch an NH incentive program that provides dedicated training and covers the cost of CHG and nasal iodophor for OC NHs that enroll.
Disclosures: Gabrielle M. Gussin, University of California, Irvine, Stryker (Sage Products): Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Clorox: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Medline: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Xttrium: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes.
Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a growing and highly prevalent problem in nursing homes. We describe selected AR phenotypes from pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) reported by nursing homes to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility testing results for UTI events in nursing homes between January 2013 and December 2017 were analyzed. The pathogen distribution and pooled mean proportion of isolates that tested resistant to select antibiotic agents are reported.
Setting and Participants:
US nursing homes voluntarily participating in the Long-Term Care Facility component of the NHSN.
Overall, 243 nursing homes reported 1 or more UTIs: 121 (50%) were nonprofit facilities, median bed size was 91 (range: 9–801), and average occupancy was 87%. In total, 6,157 pathogens were reported for 5,485 UTI events. Moreover, 9 pathogens accounted for 90% of all reported UTIs; the 3 most frequently identified were Escherichia coli (41%), Proteus species (14%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca (13%). Among E. coli, fluoroquinolone, and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance were most prevalent (50% and 20%, respectively). Although Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium represented <5% of pathogens reported, they had the highest rates of resistance (67% methicillin resistant and 60% vancomycin resistant, respectively). Multidrug resistance was most common in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11%). For the resistant phenotypes we assessed, 36% of all UTIs reported were associated with a resistant pathogen.
This is the first summary of AR among common pathogens causing UTIs reported to NHSN by nursing homes. Improved understanding of the resistance burden among common infections helps inform facility infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship efforts.
We describe transmission of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 1193 in a group home. E. coli ST1193 is an emerging multidrug-resistant clone not previously shown to carry carbapenemases in the United States. Our investigation illustrates the potential of residential group homes to amplify rare combinations of pathogens and resistance mechanisms.
Acute change in mental status (ACMS), defined by the Confusion Assessment Method, is used to identify infections in nursing home residents. A medical record review revealed that none of 15,276 residents had an ACMS documented. Using the revised McGeer criteria with a possible ACMS definition, we identified 296 residents and 21 additional infections. The use of a possible ACMS definition should be considered for retrospective nursing home infection surveillance.
The US Census Bureau’s County Business Patterns (CBP) series provides a unique opportunity to describe the healthcare sector using a single, national data source.
We analyzed CBP data on business establishments in the healthcare industry for 2000–2016 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Setting and facility types were defined using the North American Industry Classification System.
In 2016, CBP enumerated 707,634 US healthcare establishments (a 34% increase from 2000); 86.5% were outpatient facilities and services followed by long-term care facilities (12.5%) and acute-care facilities (1.0%). Between 2000 and 2016, traditional facilities such as general medical surgical and surgical hospitals (−0.4%) and skilled nursing facilities (+0.1%) decreased or remained flat, while other long-term care and outpatient providers grew rapidly.
This analysis highlights the steady growth and increased specialization of the US healthcare sector, particularly in long-term care and outpatient settings.
To test the hypothesis that long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) or asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic strains are an important source of transmission in the LTCF and in the hospital during acute-care admissions.
A 6-month cohort study with identification of transmission events was conducted based on tracking of patient movement combined with restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
Veterans Affairs hospital and affiliated LTCF.
The study included 29 LTCF residents identified as asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic C. difficile based on every other week perirectal screening and 37 healthcare facility-associated CDI cases (ie, diagnosis >3 days after admission or within 4 weeks of discharge to the community), including 26 hospital-associated and 11 LTCF-associated cases.
Of the 37 CDI cases, 7 (18·9%) were linked to LTCF residents with LTCF-associated CDI or asymptomatic carriage, including 3 of 26 hospital-associated CDI cases (11·5%) and 4 of 11 LTCF-associated cases (36·4%). Of the 7 transmissions linked to LTCF residents, 5 (71·4%) were linked to asymptomatic carriers versus 2 (28·6%) to CDI cases, and all involved transmission of epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strains. No incident hospital-associated CDI cases were linked to other hospital-associated CDI cases.
Our findings suggest that LTCF residents with asymptomatic carriage of C. difficile or CDI contribute to transmission both in the LTCF and in the affiliated hospital during acute-care admissions. Greater emphasis on infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship in LTCFs is needed, and these efforts should focus on LTCF residents during hospital admissions.
To examine knowledge and attitudes about influenza vaccination and infection prevention practices among healthcare personnel (HCP) in a long-term-care (LTC) setting.
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey.
An LTC facility in St Louis, Missouri.
All HCP working at the LTC facility were eligible to participate, regardless of department or position. Of 170 full- and part-time HCP working at the facility, 73 completed the survey, a 42.9% response rate.
Most HCP agreed that respiratory viral infections were serious and that hand hygiene and face mask use were protective. However, only 46% could describe the correct transmission-based precautions for an influenza patient. Correctly answering infection prevention knowledge questions did not vary by years of experience but did vary for HCP with more direct patient contact versus less patient contact. Furthermore, 42% of respondents reported working while sick, and 56% reported that their coworkers did. In addition, 54% reported that facility policies made staying home while ill difficult. Some respondents expressed concerns about the safety (22%) and effectiveness (27%) of the influenza vaccine, and 28% of respondents stated that they would not get the influenza vaccine if it was not required.
This survey of staff in an LTC facility identified several areas for policy improvement, particularly sick leave, as well as potential targets for interventions to improve infection prevention knowledge and to address HCP concerns about influenza vaccination to improve HCP vaccination rates in LTCs.
We assessed the appropriateness of initiating antibiotics in 49 nursing home (NH) residents receiving antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) using 3 published algorithms. Overall, 16 residents (32%) received prophylaxis, and among the 33 receiving treatment, the percentage of appropriate use ranged from 15% to 45%. Opportunities exist for improving UTI antibiotic prescribing in NH.
To facilitate surveillance and describe the burden of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) in nursing homes (NHs), we compared the quality of resident-level data collected by NH personnel and external staff.
A 1-day point-prevalence survey
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Overall, 9 nursing homes among 4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emerging Infection Program (EIP) sites were included in this study.
NH personnel collected data on resident characteristics, clinical risk factors for HAIs, and the presence of 3 HAI screening criteria on the day of the survey. Trained EIP surveillance officers collected the same data elements via retrospective medical chart review for comparison; surveillance officers also collected available data to identify HAIs (using revised McGeer definitions). Overall agreement was calculated among residents identified by both teams with selected risk factors and HAI screening criteria. The impact of using NH personnel to collect screening criteria on HAI prevalence was assessed.
The overall prevalence of clinical risk factors among the 1,272 residents was similar between NH personnel and surveillance officers, but the level of positive agreement (residents with factors identified by both teams) varied between 39% and 87%. Surveillance officers identified 253 residents (20%) with ≥1 HAI screening criterion, resulting in 67 residents with an HAI (5.3 per 100 residents). The NH personnel identified 152 (12%) residents with ≥1 HAI screening criterion; 42 residents had an HAI (3.5 per 100 residents).
We identified discrepancies in resident-level data collection between surveillance officers and NH personnel, resulting in varied estimates of the HAI prevalence. These findings have important implications for the design and implementation of future HAI prevalence surveys.
To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of infection control among staff in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions.
Residential care facility (facility A).
Facility A staff (N = 200).
We distributed a survey to staff at facility A. We classified staff with direct care responsibilities as clinical (ie, physicians, nurses, and therapists) or nonclinical (ie, habilitation assistants, volunteers, and teachers) and used X2 tests to measure differences between staff agreement to questions.
Of 248 surveys distributed, 200 (81%) were completed; median respondent age was 36 years; 85% were female; and 151 were direct care staff (50 clinical, 101 nonclinical). Among direct care staff respondents, 86% agreed they could identify residents with respiratory symptoms, 70% stayed home from work when ill with respiratory infection, 64% agreed that facility administration encouraged them to stay home when ill with respiratory infection, and 72% reported that ill residents with respiratory infections were separated from well residents. Clinical and nonclinical staff differed in agreement about using waterless hand gel as a substitute for handwashing (96% vs 78%; P = .005) and whether handwashing was done after touching residents (92% vs 75%; P = .04).
Respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control could be improved, especially among nonclinical staff. Facilities caring for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions should encourage adherence to infection control best practices among all staff having direct contact with residents.
Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
To identify risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents.
Multicenter, prospective cohort followed over 6 months.
Three Veterans Affairs (VA) LTCFs.
All current and new residents except those with short stay (<2 weeks).
MRSA carriage was assessed by serial nares cultures and classified into 3 groups: persistent (all cultures positive), intermittent (at least 1 but not all cultures positive), and noncarrier (no cultures positive). MRSA acquisition was defined by an initial negative culture followed by more than 2 positive cultures with no subsequent negative cultures. Epidemiologic data were collected to identify risk factors, and MRSA isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Among 412 residents at 3 LTCFs, overall MRSA prevalence was 58%, with similar distributions of carriage at all 3 facilities: 20% persistent, 39% intermittent, 41% noncarriers. Of 254 residents with an initial negative swab, 25 (10%) acquired MRSA over the 6 months; rates were similar at all 3 LTCFs, with no clusters evident. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that receipt of systemic antimicrobials during the study was the only significant risk factor for MRSA acquisition (odds ratio, 7.8 [95% confidence interval, 2.1–28.6]; P = .002). MRSA strains from acquisitions were related by PFGE to those from a roommate in 9/25 (36%) cases; 6 of these 9 roommate sources were persistent carriers.
MRSA colonization prevalence was high at 3 separate VA LTCFs. MRSA acquisition was strongly associated with antimicrobial exposure. Roommate sources were often persistent carriers, but transmission from roommates accounted for only approximately one-third of MRSA acquisitions.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), also known as nosocomial infections, are those infections acquired in the hospital or other health care facility (HCF). They affect more than 2 million patients annually (Table 101.1). Adverse consequences of these infections are formidable, resulting in an estimated 900 000 deaths and an overall cost of about $4.5 billion annually in the United States. Since the 1999 report from the Institute of Medicine, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, reports from several other groups have led to heightened attention to the development of safer health care environments. Leading regulatory, accreditation, and quality-monitoring organizations, including the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), have targeted some HAIs as preventable adverse events and an issue of patient safety. Increased public awareness of the cost and seriousness of HAIs has led to the promotion of public disclosure of HAI rates and motivated several states to develop legislation mandating disclosure of HAIs by hospitals and other health care organizations.
To address the growing concerns, cost, and adverse impact of these infections, HCFs must focus on minimizing the risk of acquiring HAIs within the health care environment. Preventive efforts are especially important in the integrated health care systems that characterize many areas of the United States. In January of 2005, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) launched the 100 000 Lives Campaign to target preventable health care-associated errors and deaths.