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While third states and international organisations often co-sign peace agreements in the capacity of witnesses or guarantors, little is understood of the legal consequences flowing from these roles. The chapter aims to fill this gap. First, it highlights that the mere designation of witness or guarantor leads to few consequences. Second, it analyses how specific third-party rights and obligations are established and conceptualised under VCLT rules, extended by analogy to intra-state peace agreements. Third, it provides a brief illustration of common third-party rights and obligations in peace agreements. Finally, it examines whether the involvement of third parties can internationalise an intra-state peace agreement, i.e. render it to be governed by international law. Bringing together views from the literature, jurisprudence and the preceding analysis on the structure of third-party rights and obligations, the chapter concludes that such rights and obligations can be internationalised, in a manner that can only extend to the agreement as a whole when inseparable from the rest of the agreement.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
The announcement by Presidents Obama and Castro in December 2014 of a major step towards normalisation of inter-state relations was part of what is primarily a political process, but normalisation implies a return to peaceful inter-state relations based on respect for fundamental principles of international law. This commentary explores the role that those principles have played in helping shape the confrontation between the United States and Cuba since the revolution of 1959, which has been underpinned by an economic, commercial and financial embargo of Cuba by the United States. This commentary argues that, from being an integral part of the bilateral dispute, international law can, at key moments, shift to form part of a solution. The changing political landscape raises the prospects of the parties turning to international law as a means of restoring normal relations between them resulting in, amongst other changes, the demise of the embargo.
One of the goals of environmental education is the development of environmental literacy. The development of environmental literacy for preservice teachers is critical if they are to be confident and competent to deliver environmental education in schools. Little is known about the impact of environmental education on preservice teachers’ environmental literacy and their subsequent practices as teachers within schools in New Zealand. This study used a mixed-methods approach with a pretest and posttest design to examine the environmental literacy of preservice teachers enrolled in a compulsory environmental education paper as part of their Bachelor of Teaching program at a New Zealand university. The perceptions of the preservice teachers’ preparedness to teach environmental education was also examined. Findings indicate that despite only slight shifts in preservice teachers’ environmental literacy, their confidence to teach environmental education significantly increased after completing the paper. Increases in the strength of correlations between environmental knowledge and affective dispositions were observed upon completing the environmental education paper. Implications of findings for teacher education programs are discussed. This study could inform curriculum design and teaching and learning practices for effectively preparing preservice teachers to promote the development of the environmental literacy of students in their future schools.
Objectives: 1) Assess which electrodiagnostic studies Canadian clinicians use to aid in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). 2) Assess whether Canadian clinicians follow the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine/American Academy of Neurology/American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Practice Parameter for Electrodiagnostic Studies in CTS. 3) Assess how Canadian clinicians manage CTS once a diagnosis has been established. Methods: In this prospective observational study, an electronic survey was sent to all members of the Canadian Neuromuscular Group (CNMG) and the Canadian Association of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (CAPM&R) Neuromuscular Special Interest Group. Questions addressed which electrodiagnostic tests were being routinely used for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Management recommendations for CTS was also explored. Results: Of the 70 individuals who completed the survey, fourteen different nerve conduction study techniques were reported. Overall, 36/70 (51%) of participants followed the AANEM/AAN/AAPM&R Practice Parameter. The standard followed by the fewest of our respondents with 64% compliance (45/70) was the use of a standard distance of 13 to 14 cm with respect to the median sensory nerve conduction study. Regarding management, 99% would recommend splinting in the case of mild CTS. In moderate CTS, splinting was recommended by 91% of clinicians and 68% would also consider referral for surgery. In severe CTS, most recommended surgery (93%). Conclusions: There is considerable variability in terms of which electrodiagnostic tests Canadian clinicians perform for CTS. Canadian clinicians are encouraged to adhere to the AANEM/AAN/AAPM&R Practice Parameter for Electrodiagnostic Studies in CTS.
The laws of war are facing new challenges from emerging technologies and changing methods of warfare, as well as the growth of human rights and international criminal law. International mechanisms of accountability have increased and international criminal law has greater relevance in the calculations of political and military leaders, yet perpetrators often remain at large and the laws of war raise numerous normative, structural and systemic issues and problems. This edited collection brings together leading academic, military and professional experts to examine the key issues for the continuing role and relevance of the laws of war in the twenty-first century. Marking Professor Peter Rowe's contribution to the subject, this book re-examines the purposes of the laws of war and asks whether existing laws found in treaties and customs work to achieve these purposes and, if not, whether they can be fixed by specific reforms or wholesale revision.