To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Persistent tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption are major public health concerns worldwide. Both alcohol and nicotine dependence (AD, ND) are genetically influenced complex disorders that exhibit a high degree of comorbidity. To identify gene variants contributing to one or both of these addictions, we first conducted a pooling-based genomewide association study (GWAS) in an Australian population, using Illumina Infinium 1M arrays. Allele frequency differences were compared between pooled DNA from case and control groups for: (1) AD, 1224 cases and 1162 controls; (2) ND, 1273 cases and 1113 controls; and (3) comorbid AD and ND, 599 cases and 488 controls. Secondly, we carried out a GWAS in independent samples from the Netherlands for AD and for ND. Thirdly, we performed a meta-analysis of the 10, 000 most significant AD- and ND-related SNPs from the Australian and Dutch samples. In the Australian GWAS, one SNP achieved genomewide significance (p < 5 x 10-8) for ND (rs964170 in ARHGAPlOon chromosome 4, p = 4.43 x 10”8) and three others for comorbid AD/ND (rs7530302 near MARK1 on chromosome 1 (p = 1.90 x 10-9), rs1784300 near DDX6 on chromosome 11 (p = 2.60 x 10-9) and rs12882384 in KIAA1409 on chromosome 14 (p = 4.86 x 10-8)). None of the SNPs achieved genomewide significance in the Australian/Dutch meta-analysis, but a gene network diagram based on the top-results revealed overrepre-sentation of genes coding for ion-channels and cell adhesion molecules. Further studies will be requirec before the detailed causes of comorbidity between AC and ND are understood.
Although the association between depression and excess mortality has been well established, it is not clear whether this is greater in major depression than in subthreshold depression.
To compare excess mortality in major depression with that in subthreshold depression.
We searched bibliographic databases and included prospective studies in which both major and subthreshold depression were examined at baseline and mortality was measured at follow-up.
A total of 22 studies were included. People with major depression had a somewhat increased chance of dying earlier than people with subthreshold depression but this difference was not significant, although there was a trend (relative risk 1.13, 95% CI 0.98-1.30, P=0.1). The population attributable fraction was 7% for major depression and an additional 7% for subthreshold depression.
Although excess mortality may be somewhat higher in major than in subthreshold depression, the difference is small and the overall impact on excess mortality is comparable.
Inconsistent findings have been reported on the role of comorbid alcohol
use disorders as risk factors for a persistent course of depressive and
To determine whether the course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders is
conditional on the type (abuse or dependence) or severity of comorbid
alcohol use disorders.
In a large sample of participants with current depression and/or anxiety
(n = 1369) we examined whether the presence and
severity of DSM-IV alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence predicted the
2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders.
The persistence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders at the 2-year
follow-up was significantly higher in those with remitted or current
alcohol dependence (persistence 62% and 67% respectively), but not in
those with remitted or current alcohol abuse (persistence 51% and 46%
respectively), compared with no lifetime alcohol use disorder
(persistence 53%). Severe (meeting six or seven diagnostic criteria) but
not moderate (meeting three to five criteria) current dependence was a
significant predictor as 95% of those in the former group still had a
depressive and/or anxiety disorder at follow-up. This association
remained significant after adjustment for severity of depression and
anxiety, psychosocial factors and treatment factors.
Alcohol dependence, especially severe current dependence, is a risk
factor for an unfavourable course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders,
whereas alcohol abuse is not.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.