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Family-centered rounding has emerged as the gold standard for inpatient paediatrics rounds due to its association with improved family and staff satisfaction and reduction of harmful errors. Little is known about family-centered rounding in subspecialty paediatric settings, including paediatric acute care cardiology.
In this qualitative, single centre study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with providers and caregivers eliciting their attitudes toward family-centered rounding. An a priori recruitment approach was used to optimise diversity in reflected opinions. A brief demographic survey was completed by participants. We completed thematic analysis of transcribed interviews using grounded theory.
In total, 38 interviews representing the views of 48 individuals (11 providers, 37 caregivers) were completed. Three themes emerged: rounds as a moment of mutual accountability, caregivers’ empathy for providers, and providers’ objections to family-centered rounding. Providers’ objections were further categorised into themes of assumptions about caregivers, caregiver choices during rounds, and risk for exacerbation of bias and inequity.
Caregivers and providers in the paediatric acute care cardiology setting echoed some previously described attitudes toward family-centered rounding. Many of the challenges surrounding family-centered rounding might be addressed through access to training for caregivers and providers alike. Hospitals should invest in systems to facilitate family-centered rounding if they choose to implement this model of care as the current state risks erosion of provider–caregiver relationship.
Pain following surgery for cardiac disease is ubiquitous, and optimal management is important. Despite this, there is large practice variation. To address this, the Paediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative undertook the effort to create this clinical practice guideline.
A panel of experts consisting of paediatric cardiologists, advanced practice practitioners, pharmacists, a paediatric cardiothoracic surgeon, and a paediatric cardiac anaesthesiologist was convened. The literature was searched for relevant articles and Collaborative sites submitted centre-specific protocols for postoperative pain management. Using the modified Delphi technique, recommendations were generated and put through iterative Delphi rounds to achieve consensus
60 recommendations achieved consensus and are included in this guideline. They address guideline use, pain assessment, general considerations, preoperative considerations, intraoperative considerations, regional anaesthesia, opioids, opioid-sparing, non-opioid medications, non-pharmaceutical pain management, and discharge considerations.
Postoperative pain among children following cardiac surgery is currently an area of significant practice variability despite a large body of literature and the presence of centre-specific protocols. Central to the recommendations included in this guideline is the concept that ideal pain management begins with preoperative counselling and continues through to patient discharge. Overall, the quality of evidence supporting recommendations is low. There is ongoing need for research in this area, particularly in paediatric populations.
Hospitalised children have become more medically complex and increasingly require specialised teams and units properly equipped to care for them. Within paediatric cardiology, this trend, which is well demonstrated by the expansion of cardiology-specific ICUs, has more recently led to the development of acute care cardiology units to deliver team-based and condition-focused inpatient care. These care teams are now led by paediatric cardiologists with particular investment in the acute care cardiology environment. Herein, we describe the foundation and development of an Acute Care Cardiology Advanced Training Fellowship to meet the clinical, scholarly, and leadership training needs of this emerging care environment.
The article provides a general introduction to the book. It introduces the readers to the new strand of empirical and interdisciplinary scholarship that has emerged over the past decade in the study of the EU law, lawyers and the Court of Justice of the European Union. Taking stock of the on-going ‘methodological turn’ in this field, it presents the new interdisciplinary research strategies and empirical material mobilized to analyze the Court of Justice of the European Union. Altogether, the twelve case-studies cut away from the top-down approach to the EU law and the CJEU, and allow for a more localized and fine-grained observation of the socio-legal actors and practices actors involved in CJEU case law. As the introduction moves beyond mainstream legal scholarship and ‘grand narratives’ of legal integration, the edited volume provides a more historically informed and sociologically grounded account of the EU law’s (unequal) embeddedness in Europe’s economies et societies.
The book takes stock of the on-going 'methodological turn' in the field of EU law scholarship. Introducing a new generation of scholars of the European Court of Justice from law, history, sociology, political science and linguistics, it provides a set of novel interdisciplinary research strategies and empirical materials for the study of the Court of Justice of the European Union. The twelve case studies included challenge the usual top-down approach to EU law and the CJEU and instead suggest a more localized and fine-grained observation of the socio-legal actors and practices involved in the making of CJEU case-law. Moving beyond mainstream legal scholarship and the established 'grand narratives' of legal integration, the volume provides a more historically-informed and sociologically-grounded account of the EU law's uneven embeddedness in Europe's economies and societies.
The prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in adults is rising necessitating a greater understanding of acquired diseases such as community-acquired pneumonia, which remains a leading cause of age-related mortality and morbidity in the general population. We hypothesise that the CHD population, given cardiopulmonary mechanics and altered immune function, bears a uniquely high risk for pneumonia-related hospitalisations and mortality.
A countrywide cohort study was performed to calculate the relative risk and cumulative incidence of pneumonia hospitalisations and resultant 30-day mortality amongst the adult CHD population, matched 1:10 with non-CHD persons by gender, age, and adjusted for comorbidities. Cox proportional hazard regression quantified the impact of CHD severity and extracardiac defects.
The CHD cohort includes 17,162 adults. The majority demonstrate mild/moderate CHD complexity. The cumulative incidence of pneumonia hospitalisation was higher for adults with CHD (hazard ratio 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.74–2.06) than the comparison cohort. This risk was increased for those with extracardiac defects or a syndrome (hazard ratio: 4.34; 95% confidence interval: 3.39–5.54). Additionally, CHD individuals with severe/univentricular subtypes demonstrate a heightened risk compared to the non-CHD cohort (hazard ratio: 2.35; 95% confidence interval: 1.94–2.84), as well as compared to those with mild/moderate CHD (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval: 1.07–1.53). In addition, pneumonia hospitalisation mortality was elevated above the comparison population with a 30-day mortality rate ratio of 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 1.00–1.73).
Adults with CHD are at elevated risk of pneumonia hospitalisations and pneumonia-associated mortality. This risk is further elevated in those with severe CHD and extracardiac defects.
Advanced practice providers (APPs) are being employed at increasing rates in order to meet new in-hospital care demands. Utilising the Paediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative (PAC3) hospital survey, we evaluated variations in staffing models regarding first-line providers and assessed associations with programme volume, acuity of care, and post-operative length of stay (LOS).
The PAC3 hospital survey defined staffing models and resource availability across member institutions. A resource acuity score was derived for each participating acute care cardiology unit. Surgical volume was obtained from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship between staffing models and centre volume as well as unit acuity. A previously developed case-mix adjustment model for total post-operative LOS was utilised in a multinomial regression model to evaluate the association of APP patient coverage with observed-to-expected post-operative LOS.
Surveys were completed by 31 (91%) PAC3 centres in 2017. Nearly all centres (94%) employ APPs, with a mean of 1.7 (range 0–5) APPs present on weekday rounds. The number of APPs present has a positive correlation with surgical volume (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and increased acuity (r = 0.39, p = 0.03). In the multivariate model, as coverage by APPs increased from low to moderate or high, there was greater likelihood of having a shorter-than-expected post-operative LOS (p < 0.001).
The incorporation of paediatric acute care cardiology APPs is associated with reduced post-operative LOS. Future studies are necessary to understand how APPs impact these patient-specific outcomes.
CHD is the most common birth defect type, with one-fourth of patients requiring intervention in the first year of life. Caregiver understanding of CHD may vary. Health literacy may be one factor contributing to this variability.
The study occurred at a large, free-standing children’s hospital. Recruitment occurred at a free-of-charge CHD camp and during outpatient cardiology follow-up visits. The study team revised the CHD Guided Questions Tool from an eighth- to a sixth-grade reading level. Caregivers of children with CHD completed the “Newest Vital Sign” health literacy screen and demographic surveys. Health literacy was categorised as “high” (Newest Vital Sign score 4–6) or “low” (score 0–3). Caregivers were randomised to read either the original or revised Guided Questions Tool and completed a validated survey measuring understandability and actionability of the Guided Questions Tool. Understandability and actionability data analysis used two-sample t-testing, and within demographic group differences in these parameters were assessed via one-way analysis of variance.
Eighty-two caregivers participated who were largely well educated with a high income. The majority (79.3%) of participants scored “high” for health literacy. No differences in understanding (p = 0.43) or actionability (p = 0.11) of the original and revised Guided Questions Tool were noted. There were no socio-economic-based differences in understandability or actionability (p > 0.05). There was a trend towards improved understanding of the revised tool (p = 0.06).
This study demonstrated that readability of the Guided Questions Tool could be improved. Future work is needed to expand the study population and further understand health literacy’s impact on the CHD community.
To examine the strengths and opportunities for improvement of current home care education practices to inform the development of the Home Care for Heart Health intervention, and to develop a web-based intervention for parents and clinicians with complimentary print materials that could provide the right education at the right time to foster a safer transition from hospital to home.
An inter-professional focus group of parents, clinicians, and designers was formed to co-create a home care education intervention for parents of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and their care team. We used the Integrated New Product Development process model created by Jonathon Cagan and Craig Vogel at Carnegie Mellon University to develop the intervention. This process model is a way of thinking that combines horizontal and inter-disciplinary teams, stakeholder-centric focus, and a system of qualitative discovery and development evolving towards quantitative methods of refinement.
Our team developed the Home Care for Heart Health intervention. The evidenced-based intervention includes a quick reference guide for parents of children with CHD, an accompanying app, family-friendly pathways, and clinician education.
Using an inter-professional approach, our team of clinicians, parents, and design experts were able to co-create a clinician–parent home care education intervention with broad application and lifelong relevance to the Congenital Heart Disease Community.
Our intervention has the potential to be used as a model for other home care education interventions for parents of children with chronic illnesses.
Optimising short- and long-term outcomes for children and patients with CHD depends on continued scientific discovery and translation to clinical improvements in a coordinated effort by multiple stakeholders. Several challenges remain for clinicians, researchers, administrators, patients, and families seeking continuous scientific and clinical advancements in the field. We describe a new integrated research and improvement network – Cardiac Networks United – that seeks to build upon the experience and success achieved to-date to create a new infrastructure for research and quality improvement that will serve the needs of the paediatric and congenital heart community in the future. Existing gaps in data integration and barriers to improvement are described, along with the mission and vision, organisational structure, and early objectives of Cardiac Networks United. Finally, representatives of key stakeholder groups – heart centre executives, research leaders, learning health system experts, and parent advocates – offer their perspectives on the need for this new collaborative effort.
Collaborative quality improvement and learning networks have amended healthcare quality and value across specialities. Motivated by these successes, the Pediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative (PAC3) was founded in late 2014 with an emphasis on improving outcomes of paediatric cardiology patients within cardiac acute care units; acute care encompasses all hospital-based inpatient non-intensive care. PAC3 aims to deliver higher quality and greater value care by facilitating the sharing of ideas and building alignment among its member institutions. These aims are intentionally aligned with the work of other national clinical collaborations, registries, and parent advocacy organisations. The mission and early work of PAC3 is exemplified by the formal partnership with the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4), as well as the creation of a clinical registry, which links with the PC4 registry to track practices and outcomes across the entire inpatient encounter from admission to discharge. Capturing the full inpatient experience allows detection of outcome differences related to variation in care delivered outside the cardiac ICU and development of benchmarks for cardiac acute care. We aspire to improve patient outcomes such as morbidity, hospital length of stay, and re-admission rates, while working to advance patient and family satisfaction. We will use quality improvement methodologies consistent with the Model for Improvement to achieve these aims. Membership currently includes 36 centres across North America, out of which 26 are also members of PC4. In this report, we describe the development of PAC3, including the philosophical, organisational, and infrastructural elements that will enable a paediatric acute care cardiology learning network.
Powder X-ray diffraction has become a routine procedure for the quantification of phases in mixtures. The most common method for this measurement is the Rietveld method, which generally returns the relative weight percentages of the crystalline components within the mixture. However, in many instances, it is also desirable to obtain an estimate of the amorphous content of a sample. There are several methods that may be used for this measurement and their accuracy has been assessed previously with a number of ideal, synthetic mixtures. Many samples, especially in the mineralogy sphere, are far from ideal and contain multiple phases of varying absorption contrast. This creates a microabsorption problem which affects the accuracy of the determination of both the crystalline and amorphous components. This paper assesses commonly used methods of amorphous determination with a series of synthetic samples designed to create a considerable microabsorption problem.