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Let G denote a possibly discrete topological group admitting an open subgroup I which is pro-p. If H denotes the corresponding Hecke algebra over a field k of characteristic p, then we study the adjunction between H-modules and k-linear smooth G-representations in terms of various model structures. If H is a Gorenstein ring, we single out a full subcategory of smooth G-representations which is equivalent to the category of all Gorenstein projective H-modules via the functor of I-invariants. This applies to groups of rational points of split connected reductive groups over finite and over non-Archimedean local fields, thus generalizing a theorem of Cabanes. Moreover, we show that the Gorenstein projective model structure on the category of H-modules admits a right transfer. On the homotopy level, the right derived functor of I-invariants then admits a right inverse and becomes an equivalence when restricted to a suitable subcategory.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) includes deficits in theory of mind (ToM). However, associations between ToM and caregiver burden and distress are still unclear. The objective of this pilot study was to preliminarily explore the relation between ToM and caregiver burden and distress in a sample of PD-MCI patients. Twelve PD-MCI patients were evaluated on a ToM task (Faux Pas), whereas their caregivers were assessed on caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview-12 items) and distress (Neuropsychiatric Inventory–Distress). Cognitive ToM was significantly associated with caregiver distress, but caregiver burden was associated with the severity of patient psychiatric symptoms.
To estimate the minimum prevalence of adult hereditary ataxias (HA) and spastic paraplegias (HSP) in Eastern Quebec and to evaluate the proportion of associated mutations in identified genes.
We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of patients who met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of HA (n = 241) and HSP (n = 115) in the East of the Quebec province between January 2007 and July 2019. The primary outcome was the prevalence per 100,000 persons with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The secondary outcome was the frequency of mutations identified by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Minimum carrier frequency for identified variants was calculated based on allele frequency values and the Hardy–Weinberg (HW) equation.
The minimum prevalence of HA in Eastern Quebec was estimated at 6.47/100 000 [95% CI; 6.44–6.51]; divided into 3.73/100 000 for autosomal recessive (AR) ataxias and 2.67/100 000 for autosomal dominant (AD) ataxias. The minimum prevalence of HSP was 4.17/100 000 [95% CI; 4.14–4.2]; with 2.05/100 000 for AD-HSP and 2.12/100 000 for AR-HSP. In total, 52.4% of patients had a confirmed genetic diagnosis. AR cerebellar ataxia type 1 (2.67/100 000) and AD spastic paraplegia SPG4 (1.18/100 000) were the most prevalent disorders identified. Mutations were identified in 23 genes and molecular alterations in 7 trinucleotides repeats expansion; the most common mutations were c.15705–12 A > G in SYNE1 and c.1529C > T (p.A510V) in SPG7.
We described the minimum prevalence of genetically defined adult HA and HSP in Eastern Quebec. This study provides a framework for international comparisons and service planning.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.
The age-at-onset (AAO) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is thought to be influenced by environmental factors and polygenic predispositions. Professional exposures to pesticides and toxic metals were shown to be associated with an earlier onset in small sample studies.
Aim of Study:
The aim of this study was to confirm the association between professional exposures to pesticides and toxic metals and the AAO of PD, on a larger cohort of patients, defined with a clinic-based ascertainment scheme.
We used an incident cohort of 290 patients recruited through three designated movement disorder clinics in the province of Quebec, Canada. Patients completed a detailed questionnaire regarding professional exposures to pesticides and toxic metals. We compared the AAO in patients without prior professional exposure (N = 170) and those with exposure to pesticides (N = 53) or toxic metals through welding (N = 30). We further subdivided patients exposed to pesticides according to the frequency and proximity of their contacts.
Patients with prior exposure to pesticides (AAO = 54.74 years) or toxic metals (54.27 years) had a significantly earlier AAO compared to the control group (59.26 years) (p = 0.003). In those exposed to pesticides, closer (p = 0.03) and more frequent (p = 0.02) contacts were negatively correlated with AAO.
Exposure to pesticides and toxic metals were both associated with an earlier onset of PD, an effect that was greater with higher levels of exposure, both in terms of frequency and proximity.
Objective: This study aimed to systematically review the effects of currently prescribed antiparkinson medication on cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson’s disease (PD) who were either cognitively intact or mildly impaired. Methods: English- and French-language studies published between 1969 and 2017 were accessed via MedLine, PsychNET, EMBASE and EBSCO databases. Methodological quality (MQ) was evaluated with the quality assessment instrument of the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review (scores from 0% to 44% indicate very low quality; scores from 45% to 64% indicate low quality; scores from 65% to 84% indicate medium quality; and scores from 85% to 100% indicate high quality). Hedges’ g and Student’s t-test were performed on all cognitive outcome measures reported. Results: In total, 14 studies assessed the cognitive effects of levodopa (L-D), pramipexole (PRX), selegiline (SEL) and rasagiline (RAS) in mild-to-moderate non-demented PD patients. The MQ was overall low, with an average score of 49.1%. Results for L-D showed deleterious effects on a test of cognitive inhibition, as well as benefits on tests of attention/processing speed/working memory, executive functions and episodic memory. Pramipexole was associated with a worsening of episodic memory and impulse control. Results on SEL indicated a deterioration of global cognition over time and of concept formation. Rasagiline had some benefits on working memory and verbal fluency. Conclusion: Antiparkinson medications can have deleterious (L-D; PRX; SEL) and beneficial (L-D; RAS) effects on cognition. However, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials with larger sample sizes are required to better elucidate this issue.
The aim of the present study was to identify the mutations in the connexin 32 gene in French-Canadian families with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX).
Molecular analysis was performed by nonisotopic single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing. Clinical evaluation was carried out according to the scale defined by the European Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy Consortium.
In one family, the mutation Arg142Trp was located in the transmembrane domain III whereas, in four other families we identified a novel mutation (Ser26Trp) located in the transmembrane domain I of the connexin 32 gene. Haplotype analysis revealed that these four families are related and suggests a founder mutation. Sixteen patients from these four families were studied. As expected, all the affected males were more clinically affected than the females and all affected patients exhibited some electrophysiological characteristics of demyelination.
Our study suggests that the Ser26Trp mutation may cause a primary demyelinating neuropathy that is not associated with a specific clinical phenotype. We also find evidence that the majority of kindreds share a common ancestor.
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a form of intracranial vascular disease that may arise sporadically or be dominantly inherited. Linkage studies have revealed genetic heterogeneity among the dominantly inherited forms suggesting the existence of at least three loci called CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3.
In the present study, we screened five families with dominantly inherited CCM for CCM1 gene mutations with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Then, we performed linkage analysis and haplotyping on these five families using highly polymorphic markers at the candidate CCM loci.
None of the five families tested with DHPLC were found to have mutations in the CCM1 gene. Based on haplotyping, we identified three families segregating alleles for CCM2, while two families segregated alleles for CCM3. Using linkage analysis, we could confirm that one family (IFCAS-1) had a positive Lod score of 2.03 (p<0.0001) at the CCM2 locus using marker D7S678.
The present study is the first one to replicate linkage at the CCM2 locus and provides a fifth family identified as such. It also supports the concept of genetic heterogeneity in CCM, identifying four other families that showed no mutations in the CCM1 gene.
Pompe disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the
enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase. Patients have skeletal muscle and respiratory
weakness with or without cardiomyopathy. The objective of our review was to
systematically evaluate the quality of evidence from the literature to
formulate evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of
patients with Pompe disease. The literature review was conducted using
published literature, clinical trials, cohort studies and systematic
reviews. Cardinal treatment decisions produced seven management guidelines
and were assigned a GRADE classification based on the quality of evidence in
the published literature. In addition, six recommendations were made based
on best clinical practices but with insufficient data to form a guideline.
Studying outcomes in rare diseases is challenging due to the small number of
patients, but this is in particular the reason why we believe that informed
treatment decisions need to consider the quality of the evidence.
Historical events have shaped the various regional gene pools of the French-Canadian (FC) population, leading to increased prevalence of some rare diseases. The first studies of these founder effects were performed in large part by astute clinicians such as André Barbeau. In collaboration with others, he contributed greatly to the delineation of phenotypic subtypes of these conditions. As such, the following neurogenetic disorders were first identified in patients of FC origin: AOA2, ARSACS, HSAN2, RAB, and HMSN/ACC. We have summarized our current knowledge of the main hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies that are particular to the FC population. The initial genetic characterization of the more common and homogeneous of these diseases has been largely completed. We predict that the regional populations of Canada will allow the identification of new rare forms of hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies, and contribute to the unravelling of the genetic basis of these entities.
Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by late onset proximal muscle involvement associated with cardiac complications such as atrioventricular conduction blocks, dilated cardiomyopathy, and sudden death.
Define the full phenotypic spectrum of a new mutation in the LMNA gene causing limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B.
We identified a large French Canadian family with the LGMD 1B phenotype and a cardiac conduction disease phenotype that carried a new mutation in the LMNA gene and sought to define its full phenotypic spectrum by performing complete neurological and cardiac evaluations, muscle biopsy, RNA and DNA studies.
The proband and 12 living at risk relatives were tested. In total, we identified seven carriers of a new (IVS9-3C>G) LMNA gene mutation. Of the three symptomatic patients, all had cardiac involvement, but only two presented proximal limb weakness. The one available muscle biopsy demonstrated a normally expressed lamin A/C protein, localized at the nuclear envelope. RNA study revealed a loss of exon 10 transcription caused by the IVS9-3C to G splicing mutation.
We have identified a new mutations in the LMNA gene in a French-Canadian family. This diagnosis has important implications for affected patients and their siblings since they may eventually require pacemaker implantation.
The most common cause of autosomal dominant Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is mutations in the SPG4 gene. We have previously identified novel SPG4 mutations in a collection of North American families including the c.G1801A mutation present in two families from Quebec. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency of the c.G1801A mutation in the French Canadian (FC) population and to determine whether this mutation originates from a common ancestor.
We collected and sequenced exon 15 in probands of 37 families. Genotypes of markers flanking the SPG4 gene were used to construct haplotypes in five families. Clinical information was reviewed by a neurologist with expertise in HSP.
We have identified three additional unrelated families with the c.G1801A mutation and haplotype analysis revealed that all five families share a common ancestor. The mutation is present in 7% of all our FC families and explains half of our spastin linked FC families. The phenotype associated with the c.G1801A genotype is pure HSP with bladder involvement.
In this study we have determined that the relative frequency of the c.G1801A mutation in our FC collection is 7%, and approximately 50% in the spastin positive FC group. This mutation is the most common HSP mutation identified in this population to date and is suggestive of a founder effect in Quebec.
Clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is based on the classical triad of rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus and abnormal EEG. The 200k mutation within the gene encoding PrP, located on the short arm of chromosome 20, accounts for more than 70% of families with CJD worldwide.
Herein, we report a patient who developed persistent dry cough and classical signs of CJD, including severe cognitive decline, cerebellar signs, and myoclonic jerks, leading to death a few weeks after disease onset. Mutation screening showed that he had the 200k point mutation in the PRNP gene. His mother had died twenty years earlier with neuropathologically confirmed CJD. She had presented a rapidly progressive ataxia with myoclonus, dementia, visual hallucinations, and the same persistent dry cough.
The clinical presentation of this familial CJD case with persistent dry cough is quite unusual. Therefore, a neurological etiology should be sought when confronted with an unexplained persistent cough.
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomial disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. Adrenomyeloneuropathy is the second most frequent phenotype (25-46%) of this disease and classically presents in adulthood with spastic paraparesis. Female heterozygotes can be symptomatic, but they are frequently misdiagnosed as having multiple sclerosis.
We report a novel missense mutation in the ABCD1 gene in a 47-year-old French-Canadian female with spastic paraparesis and no confirmed family history of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The mutation is located on exon 1 and causes the amino acid substitution of a valine for an alanine in a region of the protein highly conserved between mouse and man.
Adrenomyeloneuropathy must be considered in the differential diagnosis of spastic paraparesis in men or women. This is an initial report of an ABCD1 gene mutation in the French-Canadian population, which should lead to the recognition of other cases in the future.
The aim of the present study was to examine the frequency and the phenotypic manifestations in a French-Canadian population with a chromosome 17p11.2 duplication (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A, CMT-1A).
Molecular analysis were performed by Southern blot using pVAW409R3a probe. Clinical evaluation was carried out according to the scale defined by the European HMSN Consortium.
The frequency of duplication was found to be similar in the adult (70.8%) and pediatric (72.7%) populations. Onset of symptoms occurred before 20 years of age in 85.7% of adult cases and before the age of 5 in 80% of the pediatric cases. The classical CMT syndrome was observed in 77% of the cases and the syndrome was associated with additional features in 15% of cases in the adult population. All the children presented with classical CMT syndrome with no additional features. There was a significant correlation between the disability score and the duration of the disease but no correlation was found between median nerve conduction velocity and the functional handicap, the age at onset or the duration of the disease. In one family, there was a very conspicuous anticipation over five observed generations.
This study reveals that the age at onset, the clinical and electrophysiological variability as well as the functional disability variations in a French-Canadian population did not differ from those reported in other populations.
An old founder mutation (G2019S) was found with high frequency in the North African Arabs (30%) and Ashkenazi Jews (18%).
Demonstrate if mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a significant cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the French-Canadian founder population.
Cases were recruited through a designated movement disorder clinic in Quebec City. Every index case had to meet the Ward and Gibb criteria for PD. Controls consisted of a non-disease group of similar age and ethnicity as the cases. Exons 31 and 41 of LRRK2 were amplified by PCR with intronic primers in all 125 PD cases and directly sequenced on an ABI 3700 sequencer. Six single nucleotide polymorphism were typed in 125 PD cases and 95 normal controls. Associations between unrelated cases and matched controls were analyzed. Single marker analysis and haplotype association tests were performed.
Sequencing analysis did not reveal any reported or novel mutations in exons 31 and 41 of LRRK2. The G2019S mutation as well as mutations affecting amino acid 1441 were absent in the 125 patients. The case-control association study performed to detect the presence of a common variant in LRRK2 did not provide any positive signal. Single-marker and haplotype analyses systematically gave non-significant P values.
We performed a case-control association study in 125 French-Canadian (FC) patients with PD and 95 FC controls and found that common variants in LRRK2 are unlikely to be a significant cause of late-onset PD in this founder population.