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In May 2023, the Italian region Emilia-Romagna was hit by intense rainfall, which caused extensive floods in densely populated areas. On May 4, 2023, a 12-month state of emergency was declared in the region with the activation of response and recovery plans. This field report provides an overview of the health response to the floods, paying particular attention to the measures put in place to ensure care for displaced populations and raising interesting points of discussion regarding the role of the health system during extreme weather events (EWEs). The considerations that emerge from this report underline the need for a primary care approach to disasters, especially when these occur in areas with a high prevalence of elderly resident population, and underscore the importance of integration of different levels of care.
We prove first-order definability of the prime subring inside polynomial rings, whose coefficient rings are (commutative unital) reduced and indecomposable. This is achieved by means of a uniform formula in the language of rings with signature $(0,1,+,\cdot )$. In the characteristic zero case, the claim implies that the full theory is undecidable, for rings of the referred type. This extends a series of results by Raphael Robinson, holding for certain polynomial integral domains, to a more general class.
Brannerite (UTi2O6) is among the major uranium-bearing minerals found in ore deposits, however as it has been long considered as a refractory mineral for leaching it is currently disregarded in ore deposits. Brannerite is found in a variety of geological environments with the most common occurrences being hydrothermal and pegmatitic. On the basis of scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with electron probe micro-analyses and laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer analyses, this study describes the morphological features and the major- and trace-element abundances of brannerite samples from five hydrothermal and five pegmatitic localities across the world. Mineral compositions are also compared with observations from transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectrometry showing that brannerite is amorphous. Significant results include the definition of substitution trends and REE patterns, which are characteristics of either an occurrence or genetic type (hydrothermal and pegmatitic). Hence, in combination, it is possible to obtain reliable constraints for establishing a geochemical classification of brannerite. Inferred fingerprints have direct implications for forensic science and the exploration industry; they also contribute to a better understanding of metallogenic processes and to optimising the extraction of uranium.
A mixture of natural ingredients, namely, DHA, phosphatidylcholine, silymarin, choline, curcumin and d-α-tocopherol, was studied in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Primary endpoints were serum levels of hepatic enzymes, and other parameters of liver function, the metabolic syndrome and inflammation were the secondary endpoints. The coagulation–fibrinolysis balance was also thoroughly investigated, as NAFLD is associated with haemostatic alterations, which might contribute to increased cardiovascular risk of this condition. The present study involved a double-blind, randomised, multicentre controlled trial of two parallel groups. Subjects with NAFLD (18–80 years, either sex) received the active or control treatment for 3 months. All assays were performed on a total of 113 subjects before and at the end of supplementation. The hepatic enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase decreased from 23·2 to 3·7 % after treatment, only the AST levels reaching statistical significance. However, no differences were found between control and active groups. Metabolic and inflammatory variables were unchanged, except for a slight (less than 10 %) increase in cholesterol and glucose levels after the active treatment. Coagulation–fibrinolytic parameters were unaffected by either treatment. In conclusion, chronic supplementation with the mixture of dietary compounds was well tolerated and apparently safe in NAFLD subjects. The trial failed to demonstrate any efficacy on relevant physiopathological markers, but its protocol and results may be useful to design future studies with natural compounds.
The NASA 2020 Mars mission is a Curiosity-type rover whose objective is to improve the knowledge of the geological and climatic evolution of Mars and to collect rock samples for return to Earth. The new rover has a payload of seven instruments including the SuperCam instrument which consists of four tools including a Raman spectrometer. This Raman device will be non-destructive and will analyse the surface remotely in order to determine the mineralogy of rocks and, by extent, to detect and quantify major elements such as sulfur. Sulfur has been detected as sulfate (Ca,Mg,Fe-sulfates) in sedimentary rocks. This element is difficult to quantify using the laser ablation tool of the ChemCam instrument on-board the Curiosity rover.
We propose a Raman calibration to constrain the sulfur abundance in polymineralic mixtures. We acquired Raman signatures on binary and ternary mechanical mixtures containing Ca and Mg sulfates, mixed with natural silicate minerals supposed to be relevant to basaltic-sedimentary rocks at the surface of Mars: olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and plagioclase. Using the Voigt function to process the Raman spectra from samples extracted from our mixtures allows us to calculate the initial proportions of our preparations of Ca and Mg sulfates. From these simulations, calibration equations have been provided allowing us to determine sulfate proportions (CaSO4 and MgSO4) in a mixture with basaltic minerals. With the presented calibration, S can be quantified at a lower limit of 0.7 wt.% in Martian soil.
The authors present the technological routes used to build planar and vertical gate all-around (GAA) field-effect transistors (FETs) using both Si and SiGe nanowires (NWs) and the electrical performances of the as-obtained components. Planar FETs are characterized in back gate configuration and exhibit good behavior such as an ION/IOFF ratio up to 106. Hysteretic behavior and sub-threshold slope values with respect to surface and oxide interface trap densities are discussed. Vertical devices using Si NWs show good characteristics at the state of the art with ION/IOFF ratio close to 106 and sub-threshold slope around 125 mV/decade while vertical SiGe devices also obtained with the same technological processes, present an ION/IOFF ratio from 103 to 104but with poor dynamics which can be explained by the high interface traps density.
We report the growth of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with several catalysts. We performed low temperature photoluminescence (PL) experiments on as-grown SiNWs for the following catalysts: Au, Cu, TiSi, PdSi and PtSi. Nanowires are chemically treated with an aqua regia solution to remove the catalyst droplets, this step is followed by a thermal oxidation process. We compared the PL of as-grown and processed SiNWs for each catalyst.
During the last ten years, we have developed an efficient growth process of nitrides on silicon substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. In collaboration with partners AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on Si having promising performances have been fabricated. Focusing on the growth aspect and underlying some of the key issues, we present in this paper an overview of our contribution in the field of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on Si substrates.
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