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The Repugnant Conclusion is an implication of some approaches to population ethics. It states, in Derek Parfit's original formulation,
For any possible population of at least ten billion people, all with a very high quality of life, there must be some much larger imaginable population whose existence, if other things are equal, would be better, even though its members have lives that are barely worth living. (Parfit 1984: 388)
People with CHD are at increased risk for executive functioning deficits. Meta-analyses of these measures in CHD patients compared to healthy controls have not been reported.
To examine differences in executive functions in individuals with CHD compared to healthy controls.
We performed a systematic review of publications from 1 January, 1986 to 15 June, 2020 indexed in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library.
Inclusion criteria were (1) studies containing at least one executive function measure; (2) participants were over the age of three.
Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two authors. We used a shifting unit-of-analysis approach and pooled data using a random effects model.
The search yielded 61,217 results. Twenty-eight studies met criteria. A total of 7789 people with CHD were compared with 8187 healthy controls. We found the following standardised mean differences: −0.628 (−0.726, −0.531) for cognitive flexibility and set shifting, −0.469 (−0.606, −0.333) for inhibition, −0.369 (−0.466, −0.273) for working memory, −0.334 (−0.546, −0.121) for planning/problem solving, −0.361 (−0.576, −0.147) for summary measures, and −0.444 (−0.614, −0.274) for reporter-based measures (p < 0.001).
Our analysis consisted of cross-sectional and observational studies. We could not quantify the effect of collinearity.
Individuals with CHD appear to have at least moderate deficits in executive functions. Given the growing population of people with CHD, more attention should be devoted to identifying executive dysfunction in this vulnerable group.
A pre-Sasanian Middle Persian inscription on a silver bowl is published here for the first time and compared with a similar inscription published by P. O. Skjærvø in 2000 and identified by him as naming members of the dynasty which ruled Persis (Fārs) in the 1st century bce. The commentary concentrates on the word šʾtḥw, apparently a name for this type of bowl, and on the importance of these inscriptions for the history of the Pahlavi script.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
COVID-19 is expected to radically alter higher education in the United States and to further limit the availability of tenure-track academic positions. How has the pandemic and its associated fallout affected doctoral students’ career aspirations and priorities? We investigate this question by comparing responses to a PhD career survey prior to and following significant developments in the pandemic. We find little evidence that the pandemic caused substantial shifts in PhD students’ aspirations and priorities. However, some differences emerge when considering later dates in our survey period, particularly among more senior students who express a greater interest in some non-academic careers and job characteristics. Contrary to expectation, we also find evidence that the pandemic improved some students’ perceptions of their academic departments. In our conclusion, we speculate whether steps taken by the comparatively well-resourced institution that we study helped to mitigate some of the more negative consequences of the pandemic.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after maturity at multiple sites spread across 11 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. From soybean maturity to 4 wk after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased moving north through the states. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1% to 70%. That range had shifted to 5% to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 d after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed-shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output during certain years.
Background: Hospitalized patients are at an increased risk of invasive infection with Staphylococcus aureus when colonized with the bacteria on admission. Rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia are directly correlated with overall patient acuity, placing patients in intensive care areas at greatest risk. Universal decolonization with nasal antibiotic ointments has been shown to reduce the incidence of invasive MRSA in critically ill patients; however, debate remains regarding the long-term efficacy of this strategy and the possibility of developing antimicrobial resistance. An alcohol-based nasal antimicrobial may be an effective alternative. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a twice daily alcohol-based product in reducing the rate of MRSA bacteremia in an academic tertiary-care adult intensive care setting. Methods: Our study was an observational design with retrospective and prospective cohorts each consisting of 61 critical care beds. The baseline incidence of MRSA bacteremia was determined from a 7-month period preceding the implementation of the nasal antimicrobial. At implementation, each admission received an electronic order for an alcohol-based nasal antiseptic that was applied twice daily during the intensive care stay. The primary outcome was the incidence of MRSA bacteremia in each group. MRSA bacteremia was defined by the CDC NHSN criteria after review by an infection prevention nurse. The 2 test was used to compare the rates between the 2 groups, and P < .005 was considered significant. Results: The study periods contained similar patient days, with 12,475 in the retrospective group and 12,733 in the prospective group. The rate of MRSA bacteremia in the retrospective cohort was 0.2404 compared to 0 in the prospective cohort. This rate change was statistically significant, with P < .0001. Conclusions: The alcohol-based nasal antiseptic was effective in reducing healthcare-onset MRSA bacteremia in this intensive care population. This approach may be a safe and effective alternative to nasal antibiotic ointment that avoids antibiotic resistance risks.
Antarctica's ice shelves modulate the grounded ice flow, and weakening of ice shelves due to climate forcing will decrease their ‘buttressing’ effect, causing a response in the grounded ice. While the processes governing ice-shelf weakening are complex, uncertainties in the response of the grounded ice sheet are also difficult to assess. The Antarctic BUttressing Model Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP) compares ice-sheet model responses to decrease in buttressing by investigating the ‘end-member’ scenario of total and sustained loss of ice shelves. Although unrealistic, this scenario enables gauging the sensitivity of an ensemble of 15 ice-sheet models to a total loss of buttressing, hence exhibiting the full potential of marine ice-sheet instability. All models predict that this scenario leads to multi-metre (1–12 m) sea-level rise over 500 years from present day. West Antarctic ice sheet collapse alone leads to a 1.91–5.08 m sea-level rise due to the marine ice-sheet instability. Mass loss rates are a strong function of the sliding/friction law, with plastic laws cause a further destabilization of the Aurora and Wilkes Subglacial Basins, East Antarctica. Improvements to marine ice-sheet models have greatly reduced variability between modelled ice-sheet responses to extreme ice-shelf loss, e.g. compared to the SeaRISE assessments.
We consider maximal non-l-intertwining collections, which are a higher-dimensional version of the maximal non-crossing collections which give clusters of Plücker coordinates in the Grassmannian coordinate ring, as described by Scott. We extend a method of Scott for producing such collections, which are related to tensor products of higher Auslander algebras of type A. We show that a higher preprojective algebra of the tensor product of two d-representation-finite algebras has a d-precluster-tilting subcategory. Finally, we relate mutations of these collections to a form of tilting for these algebras.
Knowledge of crop–weed interference effects on weed biology along with yield penalties can be used for the development of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics. Nevertheless, little is known about the beneficial effects of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] density, an important aspect of IWM, on late Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) establishment time. Two field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to investigate how various soybean densities and A. palmeri establishment timings in weeks after crop emergence (WAE) affect height, biomass, and seed production of the weed but also crop yield in drill-seeded soybean. Soybean density had a significant impact on dry weight and seed production of A. palmeri that established within the first 2 wk of crop emergence, but not for establishment timings of the weed 4 wk and later in relation to crop emergence. Differential performance of A. palmeri gender was observed, regarding greater biomass production of female than male plants under crop presence, and merits further investigation. Grain yield reductions were recorded at earlier A. palmeri establishment timings (i.e., 0 and 1 WAE) compared with 8 WAE establishment timing in 2014 and 2015. High soybean densities resulted in greater soybean yields compared with low soybean density, but no grain yield benefits were observed between medium and high soybean densities. Crop budget analysis revealed the benefits of moderate seeding rate (i.e., 250, 000 seeds ha−1) increases in comparison to lower (i.e., 125,000 seeds ha−1) or high (i.e., 400,000 seeds ha−1) on crop revenue, net income returns, and breakeven price. Earlier A. palmeri establishment timings (i.e., 0, 1, and 2 WAE) resulted in lower crop revenue and net income returns compared with later establishment timings of the weed.
Atom probe tomography (APT) is used to quantify atomic-scale elemental and isotopic compositional variations within a very small volume of material (typically <0.01 µm3). The small analytical volume ideally contains specific compositional or microstructural targets that can be placed within the context of the previously characterized surface in order to facilitate a correct interpretation of APT data. In this regard, careful targeting and preparation are paramount to ensure that the desired target, which is often smaller than 100 nm, is optimally located within the APT specimen. Needle-shaped specimens required for atom probe analysis are commonly prepared using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). Here, we utilize FIB-SEM-based time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to illustrate a novel approach to targeting <100 nm compositional and isotopic variations that can be used for targeting regions of interest for subsequent lift-out and APT analysis. We present a new method for high-spatial resolution targeting of small features that involves using FIB-SEM-based electron deposition of platinum “buttons” prior to standard lift-out and sharpening procedures for atom probe specimen manufacture. In combination, FIB-ToF-SIMS analysis and application of the “button” method ensure that even the smallest APT targets can be successfully captured in extracted needles.
THE FU 賦 is a major genre of Chinese literature, intricately involved with the society and culture of imperial China from the Han through the Qing dynasties. It is a poetic form of tireless ambition that has been used for exhaustive descriptions of cities and palaces, as well as private reflections and lamentations, but also for carefully modulated political protest and esoteric ruminations on philosophical subtleties. Though no English term even approximates it, “rhapsody” at least suggests the energy and recitative origins of the fu. But the particular imaginative scope of the fu is unique to Chinese literature; it has been the tool of choice for Chinese poets aiming to articulate the features of the greatest cities and the tiniest insects. In politics, the fu has been the definitive genre by which to narrate the ruin of dynasties, or to counsel against the sins that incur the ruin. Whether political, astronomical, geographical, zoological, mineral, botanical, historical, metaphysical, anthropological, or horticultural, every field of learning about the exterior world lay within the scope of the rhapsodic imagination. This volume seeks to illustrate and interpret some of the key aspects of the fu genre throughout the history of imperial China, as one of the primary means by which Chinese writers limned the very limits of their universe and portrayed its diverse contents.
Various tools of literary criticism or historical analysis could be used to examine it, but first and foremost fu should be seen as a variety of Chinese poetry. This approach follows the lead of the great historian and poet Ban Gu 班固 (32– 92), who opened his magisterial composition on the “Two Capitals” 兩都賦 with the assertion that: “It has been said that the fu is a derivation from the ancient Songs.” Ban Gu was relating this genre to the Shijing 詩經, the classic anthology of poems supposedly edited by Confucius, and this filiation has the effect of placing it squarely in the main tradition of Chinese poetry. Moreover, since “Two Capitals” was chosen as the first piece in the supreme anthology of early medieval literature, the Wen xuan 文選, this sentence would also open that anthology and define the status of the fu for ages to come.
This is the first book in English to examine the fu, one of China's oldest and culturally central literary forms, from its origins up to the late imperial era. Fu poems are highly revealing sources for understanding the culture, society, and politics of their periods, and in this volume eleven essays by prominent scholars treat the fu from four major perspectives: its original use in court recitation; as a poetic genre with distinctive formal features; as a vehicle of philosophical inquiry; and as a major mode of political expression.
The generic term fu 賦, as well as the complementary term shi 詩, are used in roman font without italicization throughout this volume. In discussions of the word fu encompassing other meanings apart from the name of the literary genre, it is italicized as usual. Poetic compositions whose genre is not otherwise specified can be assumed to belong to the fu genre.
Most of the papers in this volume were presented at the Fu Poetics conference held at the Jao Tsung-I Academy of Sinology, Hong Kong Baptist University, on February 27–28, 2016. Neither the conference nor this volume would have been possible without the support of the Academy's director, Chen Zhi, an indefatigable impresario of sinological scholarship who has supported countless worthy ventures in Hong Kong.
In preparing the manuscript for publication, the copyeditor, Ms. Sherlon Ip, and the anonymous reader for the press have both provided numerous valuable corrections. The publication of this volume has been supported by a Hsu Long-sing Research Grant from the Faculty of Arts of the University of Hong Kong.