To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
A 54-year-old woman prepares dinner around 8:00 pm that includes mushrooms that she picked from her yard. The next morning, around 8:00 am, the woman (patient), her daughter, and son-in-law all develop abdominal cramps, violent vomiting, and diarrhea. They present to the emergency department and are admitted for dehydration and intractable vomiting with a presumed diagnosis of food poisoning. Twenty-four hours later, they appear well with stable vital signs and improved symptoms. Four hours later, 36 hours post-ingestion, the patient becomes lethargic. A venous blood gas reveals pH, 7.1; PCO2, 16 mmHg; and her AST was 3140 units/L with an ALT of 4260 units/L and an INR of 3.7.
Our objective was to examine the performance characteristics of a bladder stimulation technique for urine collection among infants presenting to the emergency department (ED).
This prospective cohort study enrolled a convenience sample of infants aged ≤ 90 days requiring urine testing in the ED. Infants were excluded if critically ill, moderately to severely dehydrated, or having significant feeding issues. Bladder stimulation consisted of finger tapping on the lower abdomen with or without lower back massage while holding the child upright. The primary outcome was successful midstream urine collection within 5 minutes of stimulation. Secondary outcomes included sample contamination, bladder stimulation time for successful urine collection, and perceived patient distress on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS).
We enrolled 151 infants and included 147 in the analysis. Median age was 53 days (interquartile range [IQR] 27–68 days). Midstream urine sample collection using bladder stimulation was successful in 78 infants (53.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 45–60.9). Thirty-nine samples (50%) were contaminated. Most contaminated samples (n = 31; 79.5%) were reported as “no significant growth” or “growth of 3 or more organisms”. Median bladder stimulation time required for midstream urine collection was 45 seconds (IQR 20–120 seconds). Mean VAS for infant distress was 22 mm (standard deviation 23 mm).
The success rate of this bladder stimulation technique was lower than previously reported. The contamination rate was high, however most contaminated specimens were easily identified and had no clinical impact.
The global expansion of nuclear energy will generate increasing quantities of waste with low levels of plutonium or other nuclear materials (NM) potentially subject to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Reducing requirements on retained wastes has the potential to reduce future demands on already strained IAEA resources. We describe an effort to help the IAEA and Member States better estimate projected waste loads and associated safeguards obligations by developing a reporting tool to estimate types and sizes of future waste-storage and -disposal facilities. States can use such information to plan waste facilities, including size and type. The IAEA can use these data for inclusion in multiple agency reports and products for the benefit of Member States.
Shaping markets through competition and economic regulation is at the heart of addressing the development challenges facing countries in southern Africa. The contributors to Competition Law and Economic Regulation: Addressing Market Power in southern Africa critically assess the efficacy of the competition and economic regulation frameworks, including the impact of a number of the regional competition authorities in a range of sectors throughout southern Africa. Featuring academics as well as practitioners in the field, the book addresses issues common to southern African countries, where markets are small and concentrated, with particularly high barriers to entry, and where the resources to enforce legislation against anti-competitive conduct are limited. What is needed, the contributors argue, is an understanding of competition and regional integration as part of an inclusive growth agenda for Africa. By examining competition and regulation in a single framework, and viewing this within the southern African experience, this volume adds new perspectives to the global competition literature. It is an essential reference tool and will be of great interest to policymakers and regulators, as well as the rapidly growing ecosystem of legal practitioners and economists engaged in the field.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study will assess the effect of essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation on plasma triglyceride (TG) in elderly adults. We will also explore the mechanisms mediating EAA mediated changes in fat metabolism and to suggest promising routes to refine therapy of hypertriglyceridemia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 7 nondiabetic male and female subjects ages 50–75 years with elevated plasma TG levels (130–500 mg/dL) were recruited to participate in an acute (5 h) and long-term (8 wk) EAA supplementation study. We measured changes in regional and whole body fat metabolism, including changes in body composition, plasma TG levels, whole body fat metabolic rates, tissue mitochondrial respiratory capacity, and metabolomic profiles before and after supplementation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Long-term EAA supplementation decreased fasted plasma TG levels by 19% (p<0.01). Metabolomics of skeletal muscle found acute EAA supplementation resulted in increased EAA metabolic products while long-term supplementation resulted in increased anaplerosis [flux into the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate pool] and anaplerotic substrates [propionyl (p<0.01) and succinyl (p<0.01) carnitine] and intermediates of long-chain fatty acid metabolism [stearoyl (p<0.01) and myristoyl (p<0.05) carnitine]. However, tissue level respiratory capacity appeared to be unaffected by EAA supplementation. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: EAA supplementation has potential to improve lipid metabolism and plasma TG levels in non-diabetic older adults. Mitochondrial metabolomics suggest that insufficient TCA pool size may limit tissue fatty acid oxidation and may provide an additional route for nutritional therapy.
Objectives: The Forced Choice Recognition (FCR) trial of the California Verbal Learning Test, 2nd edition, was designed as an embedded performance validity test (PVT). To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of classification accuracy against reference PVTs. Methods: Results from peer-reviewed studies with FCR data published since 2002 encompassing a variety of clinical, research, and forensic samples were summarized, including 37 studies with FCR failure rates (N=7575) and 17 with concordance rates with established PVTs (N=4432). Results: All healthy controls scored >14 on FCR. On average, 16.9% of the entire sample scored ≤14, while 25.9% failed reference PVTs. Presence or absence of external incentives to appear impaired (as identified by researchers) resulted in different failure rates (13.6% vs. 3.5%), as did failing or passing reference PVTs (49.0% vs. 6.4%). FCR ≤14 produced an overall classification accuracy of 72%, demonstrating higher specificity (.93) than sensitivity (.50) to invalid performance. Failure rates increased with the severity of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: In the absence of serious neurocognitive disorder, FCR ≤14 is highly specific, but only moderately sensitive to invalid responding. Passing FCR does not rule out a non-credible presentation, but failing FCR rules it in with high accuracy. The heterogeneity in sample characteristics and reference PVTs, as well as the quality of the criterion measure across studies, is a major limitation of this review and the basic methodology of PVT research in general. (JINS, 2016, 22, 851–858)