To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Jonathan Swift's satirical masterpiece, Gulliver's Travels, has shocked and delighted readers worldwide since its publication in 1726. At turns a humorous and harrowing indictment of human behaviour, it has been endlessly reinterpreted by critics and adapted across media by other artists. The Cambridge Companion to Gulliver's Travels comprises 17 original chapters by leading scholars, written in a theoretically-informed but accessible style. As well as providing detailed close readings of each part of the narrative, this Companion relates Gulliver's Travels to the political, religious, scientific, colonial, and intellectual debates in which Swift was engaged, and it assesses the form of the book as a novel, travel book, philosophical treatise, and satire. Finally, it explores the Travels' rich and varied afterlives: the controversies it has fuelled, the films and artworks it has inspired, and the enduring need authors have felt to 'write back' to Swift's original, disturbing, and challenging story.
The Stop the Bleed course aims to improve bystander hemorrhage control skills and may be improved with point-of-care aids. We sought to create and examine a variety of cognitive aids to identify an optimal method to augment bystander hemorrhage control skills in an emergency scenario.
Randomized trial of 346 college students. Effects of a visual or visual-audio aid on hemorrhage control skills were assessed through randomization into groups with and without prior training or familiarization with aids compared with controls. Tourniquet placement, wound packing skills, and participant comfortability were assessed during a simulated active shooter scenario.
A total of 325 (94%) participants were included in the final analyses. Participants who had attended training (odds ratio [OR], 12.67; P = 9.3 × 10−11), were provided a visual-audio aid (OR, 1.96; P = 0.04), and were primed on their aid (OR, 2.23; P = 0.01) were superior in tourniquet placement with less errors (P < 0.05). Using an aid did not improve wound packing scores compared with bleeding control training alone (P > 0.05). Aid use improved comfortability and likelihood to intervene emergency hemorrhage scenarios (P < 0.05).
Using cognitive aids can improve bystander hemorrhage control skills with the strongest effects if they were previously trained and used an aid which combined visual and audio feedback that they were previously introduced to during the course training.
At relatively high frequencies, highly sensitive grating sidelobes occur in the primary beam patterns of low frequency aperture arrays (LFAA) such as the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). This occurs when the observing wavelength becomes comparable to the dipole separation for LFAA tiles, which for the MWA occurs at
MHz. The presence of these grating sidelobes has made calibration and image processing for 300 MHz MWA observations difficult. This work presents a new calibration and imaging strategy which employs existing techniques to process two example 300 MHz MWA observations. Observations are initially calibrated using a new 300 MHz sky-model which has been interpolated from low frequency and high frequency all-sky surveys. Using this 300 MHz model in conjunction with the accurate MWA tile primary beam model, we perform sky-model calibration for the two example observations. After initial calibration a self-calibration loop is performed by all-sky imaging each observation. We mask the main lobe of the all-sky image, and perform a sky-subtraction by estimating the masked image visibilities. We then image the main lobe of the sky-subtracted visibilities, which results in high dynamic range images of the two example observations. These images have been convolved with a Gaussian to a resolution of
arcminutes, with a maximum sensitivity of
. The calibration and imaging strategy demonstrated in this work opens the door to performing science at 300 MHz with the MWA, which was previously an inaccessible domain. With this paper we release the code described below and the cross-matched catalogue along with the code to produce a sky-model in the range 70–1 400 MHz.
It is hard to think of another field of cultural practice that has been as comprehensively turned upside down by the digital revolution as music. Digital instruments, recording technologies and signal processing techniques have transformed the making of music, while digital dissemination of music – through the Internet and earbuds – has transformed the way people consume it. Live music thrives and mostly relies on digital technology, but alongside it music has become integrated into the patterns of social networking and urban mobility that increasingly structure people’s lives. The digital revolution has destabilised the traditional music business, with successive technologies reconstructing it in different forms, and at present even its short-term future is unclear. (Just as this book is going to press, Apple has announced the discontinuation of iTunes, the most commercially successful response to Napster.) Meanwhile digitalisation has changed what sort of thing music is, creating a multiplicity of genres, some of which exist only online – indeed, downloads and streaming have problematised the extent to which music can reasonably be thought of as a ‘thing’ at all. Technology that is rapidly pervading the globe is re-engineering relationships between geographically removed traditions (including by removing geography from the equation). Some see this near meltdown of so many aspects of traditional musical culture as a harbinger of fundamental social change to come.
This chapter discusses some principal themes of the Cambridge Companion to Music in Digital Culture, emphasising the social and cultural dimensions of digital music. A historical introduction ranges from the embedding of digital technology in everyday life to the emergence of virtual realities, from digital-only genres like vaporwave to Second Life and Hatsune Miku, the virtual diva whose holographic performances are seen as emblematic of posthumanism: I sketch out an aesthetics of digital culture that emphasises continuities across its expressions, from digital multimedia and internet memes to playfulness on Reddit. Attention is also given to the real-world dimensions of digital culture, including the transition from downloads to streaming, internet-based participation, and so called Web 2.0 businesses. The digital revolution has brought about a radical restructuring of the music industry, culminating in a bizarre situation whereby music is economically underpinned by the collection of commercially valuable personal data on listeners.
The impact of digital technologies on music has been overwhelming: since the commercialisation of these technologies in the early 1980s, both the practice of music and thinking about it have changed almost beyond all recognition. From the rise of digital music making to digital dissemination, these changes have attracted considerable academic attention across disciplines,within, but also beyond, established areas of academic musical research. Through chapters by scholars at the forefront of research and shorter 'personal takes' from knowledgeable practitioners in the field, this Companion brings the relationship between digital technology and musical culture alive by considering both theory and practice. It provides a comprehensive and balanced introduction to the place of music within digital culture as a whole, with recurring themes and topics that include music and the Internet, social networking and participatory culture, music recommendation systems, virtuality, posthumanism, surveillance, copyright, and new business models for music production.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide; in the United States alone, over 2.7 million individuals are affected. Various risk factors for glaucoma are known and include age, race/ethnicity, genetics, and ocular measures. Despite numerous studies, molecular and environmental factors that contribute to glaucoma remain elusive. Our objective was to conduct a genome-wide association for glaucoma among black and white HRS respondents, and to determine the feasibility for future analyses examining shared genetic markers between glaucoma and other comorbidities, behaviors, and environmental risk factors. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a longitudinal survey of a representative sample of Americans over the age of 50. Supported by the National Institute on Aging and the Social Security Administration, the HRS is designed to provide reliable data on the decisions, choices, and behaviors of people as they age and respond to changes in public policy, the economy, and health. The study obtains information every two years about income and wealth, health and use of health services, work and retirement, and family connections. Through its unique and in-depth interviews, the HRS provides an invaluable and growing body of multidisciplinary data that researchers can use to address important questions about the challenges and opportunities of aging. Because of its innovation and importance, the HRS has become the model and hub for a growing network of harmonized longitudinal aging studies around the world. Saliva was collected on half of the HRS sample each wave starting in 2006 and respondents were genotyped on the Illumina Human Omni2.5-Quad (Omni2.5) BeadChip at the NIH Center for Inherited Disease Research. We accessed survey results to evaluate prevalence of glaucoma in this dataset and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) adjusting for age, sex, and significant Principal Components and stratifying by self-reported race (White / Black). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 8179 respondents passing quality filters, 6409 (78.40%) were white and 985 (12.05%) were black. Self-reported glaucoma prevalence was 7.85% and 16.34% in white and black respondents, respectively. White respondents had a mean age of 76.97 (SD 7.53) and were 57.25% female. Black respondents had a similar mean age of 74.96 (SD 7.27) and were 62.54% female. More than 87% of both groups were assessed in 2012. Preliminary GWAS analyses did not replicate known glaucoma loci and no variants attained genome-wide significance. A suggestive variant (p<1e-05) in the black population was within 10kb of a known locus, rs1196998. Future analyses will evaluate genetic association with combinations of glaucoma and comorbidities. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Glaucoma risk is higher in minority groups than in whites, and the majority of reported genetic studies of glaucoma have been performed in individuals of European descent. It is imperative to better understand the role of genetics, environment, and health behavior in glaucoma risk. Further, understanding common mechanisms underlying diseases that co-occur with glaucoma could illuminate novel disease mechanisms that can be targeted for early intervention and/or treatment.
The simple calving laws currently used in ice-sheet models do not adequately reflect the complexity and diversity of calving processes. To be effective, calving laws must be grounded in a sound understanding of how calving actually works. Here, we develop a new strategy for formulating calving laws, using (a) the Helsinki Discrete Element Model (HiDEM) to explicitly model fracture and calving processes, and (b) the continuum model Elmer/Ice to identify critical stress states associated with HiDEM calving events. A range of observed calving processes emerges spontaneously from HiDEM in response to variations in ice-front buoyancy and the size of subaqueous undercuts. Calving driven by buoyancy and melt under-cutting is under-predicted by existing calving laws, but we show that the location and magnitude of HiDEM calving events can be predicted in Elmer/Ice from characteristic stress patterns. Our results open the way to developing calving laws that properly reflect the diversity of calving processes, and provide a framework for a unified theory of the calving process continuum.
The Revenge Problem threatens every approach to the semantic paradoxes that proceeds by introducing nonclassical semantic values. Given any such collection Δ of additional semantic values, one can construct a Revenge sentence:
This sentence is either false or has a value in Δ.
The Embracing Revenge view, developed independently by Roy T. Cook and Phlippe Schlenker, addresses this problem by suggesting that the class of nonclassical semantic values is indefinitely extensible, with each successive Revenge sentence introducing a new ‘pathological’ semantic value into the discourse. The view is explicitly motivated in terms of the idea that every notion that seems to be expressible (e.g., “has a value in Δ”, for any definite collection of semantic values Δ) should, if at all possible, be expressible. Extant work on the Embracing Revenge view has failed to live up to this promise, since the formal languages developed within such work are expressively impoverished. We rectify this here by developing a much richer formal language, and semantics for that language, and we then prove an extremely powerful expressive completeness result for the system in question.
The Afterlives of Eighteenth-Century Fiction probes the adaptation and appropriation of a wide range of canonical and lesser-known British and Irish novels in the long eighteenth century, from the period of Daniel Defoe and Eliza Haywood through to that of Jane Austen and Walter Scott. Major authors, including Jonathan Swift, Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding and Laurence Sterne, are discussed alongside writers such as Sarah Fielding and Ann Radcliffe, whose literary significance is now increasingly being recognised. By uncovering this neglected aspect of the reception of eighteenth-century fiction, this collection contributes to developing our understanding of the form of the early novel, its place in a broader culture of entertainment then and now, and its interactions with a host of other genres and media, including theatre, opera, poetry, print caricatures and film.