To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Rodents and shrews are major reservoirs of various pathogens that are related to zoonotic infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate co-infections of zoonotic pathogens in rodents and shrews trapped in four provinces of China. We sampled different rodent and shrew communities within and around human settlements in four provinces of China and characterised several important zoonotic viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens by PCR methods and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 864 rodents and shrews belonging to 24 and 13 species from RODENTIA and EULIPOTYPHLA orders were captured, respectively. For viral pathogens, two species of hantavirus (Hantaan orthohantavirus and Caobang orthohantavirus) were identified in 3.47% of rodents and shrews. The overall prevalence of Bartonella spp., Anaplasmataceae, Babesia spp., Leptospira spp., Spotted fever group Rickettsiae, Borrelia spp., and Coxiella burnetii were 31.25%, 8.91%, 4.17%, 3.94%, 3.59%, 3.47%, and 0.58%, respectively. Furthermore, the highest co-infection status of three pathogens was observed among Bartonella spp., Leptospira spp., and Anaplasmataceae with a co-infection rate of 0.46%. Our results suggested that species distribution and co-infections of zoonotic pathogens were prevalent in rodents and shrews, highlighting the necessity of active surveillance for zoonotic pathogens in wild mammals in wider regions.
To address the challenges of limited language proficiency and provide necessary feedback in the implementation of task-based language teaching (TBLT), a mobile-supported TBLT application was developed to provide linguistic and task scaffolding. Sixty-six English as a foreign language (EFL) university learners participated in a three-week experiment as part of a general English course. They were assigned to either an experimental group (mobile-supported TBLT), which received TBLT with scaffolds built into the application, or a control group (traditional TBLT), which received traditional paper-based TBLT without the scaffolds. At the end of the experiment, an English achievement test of vocabulary, grammar, and conversation comprehension was administered to determine if the technological scaffolds enhanced the learning outcomes for the course. Students’ self-perceived use of oral communication strategies was also measured to explore how these scaffolds affected the conversational interaction essential for task performance. Results showed that the mobile-supported TBLT group outperformed the traditional TBLT group on the vocabulary and conversation comprehension tests but not so much on the grammar test. Also, the mobile-supported TBLT group reported greater awareness of fluency- and accuracy-oriented strategies for speaking than the traditional TBLT group. Implications for designing mobile learning to enhance TBLT in an EFL setting are drawn.
The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of tea consumption on diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population. This multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight sites from south, east, north, west and middle regions in China by enrolling 12 017 subjects aged 20–70 years. Socio-demographic and general information was collected by a standardised questionnaire. A standard procedure was used to measure anthropometric characteristics and to obtain blood samples. The diagnosis of diabetes was determined using a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. In the final analysis, 10 825 participants were included and multiple logistic models and interaction effect analysis were applied for assessing the association between tea drinking with diabetes. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted OR for newly diagnosed diabetes were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·97), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·71, 1·09) and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·11) for daily tea drinkers, occasional tea drinkers and seldom tea drinkers, respectively. Furthermore, drinking tea daily was related to decreased risk of diabetes in females by 32 %, elderly (>45 years) by 24 % and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) by 34 %. Moreover, drinking dark tea was associated with reduced risk of diabetes by 45 % (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72; P < 0·01). The results imply that drinking tea daily was negatively related to risk of diabetes in female, elderly and obese people. In addition, drinking dark tea was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In this report, bulk graphene–reinforced titanium (Ti–Gr) nanocomposite with millimeter thickness was fabricated by selective laser melting process. Demonstrated by the characterizations of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectra, graphene nanoplatelets were successfully embedded into the titanium matrix with a uniform dispersion due to a fast heating–cooling process. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the interface between titanium and graphene, where a certain amount of carbide was formed attribute to the chemical reaction between them during multilayer laser melting. A high density of dislocations was observed surrounding the graphene nanoplatelets in titanium matrix. The strength and elastic modulus of the nanocomposites were significantly improved, which has been demonstrated by nano-indentation tests. The hardness of the bulk Ti–Gr nanocomposites was approximately 1.27 times higher than pristine Ti counterpart. The strengthening mechanisms were discussed in detail.
This is a case-control study to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of pain in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
A total of 200 PD patients from eastern China were enrolled in our study. Accordingly, 200 healthy elderly adults were recruited as controls. The characteristics of pain were collected by using the Visual Analog Scale, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), SF-36 Bodily Pain Scale, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Hoehn–Yahr Scale (H-Y), Hamilton Depression Scale, and Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs.
Of the 200 PD patients, pain was complained by 106 patients (53%). According to the SF-36 Bodily Pain Scale, pain morbidity in PD patients was significantly higher than in the control group. The average pain during last 24 h measured by the BPI was 2.67. About 76% of PD patients were found to have one pain type, 21.7% were having two pain types, and 1.9% had three pain types. Further, 69.8% of these patients were presented with musculoskeletal pain, 4.7% with dystonic pain, 22.6% with radicular-neuropathic pain, 20.8% with central neuropathic pain, and 9.4% with akathisia pain. The onset age and depression were the most significant predictors of pain in PD patients (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between pain and gender, age, disease duration, or severity of the disease. Only 5.7% of PD patients with pain received treatment in this study.
Pain is frequent and disabling, independent of demographic and clinical variables, and is significantly more common in PD patients.
Multiferroic magnetoelectric nanostructures with coupled magnetization and electric polarization across their interfaces have stimulated intense research activities over the past decade. Such interface-based magnetoelectric coupling can be exploited to significantly improve the performance of many devices such as memories, tunable radio-frequency/microwave devices, and magnetic sensors. In this article, we introduce a number of current or developing technologies and discuss their limitations. We describe how the use of magnetoelectric nanostructures can overcome these limitations to optimize device performance. We also present challenges that need to be addressed in pursuing practical applications of magnetoelectric devices.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
The physics process in a new kind of plasma magnetic field compression generator (MFCG) without the preliminary magnetic field is studied with a zero-dimensional theoretical model. It is found that the plasma liner is accelerated in the conduction stage and is decelerated in the compression stage. The geometry parameters of MFCG effect the load current amplification significantly. The geometry parameters need to be chosen carefully to make the acceleration space and the deceleration space being suitable for the generator circuit and the injected plasma liner to obtain the optimal amplification factor. For the given driven circuit, the typical amplification factor of load current is greater than 2.
Medicago sativa is an excellent pasture legume, but it is very sensitive to aluminium (Al) toxicity. To better understand the mechanism of M. sativa sensitivity to Al, a forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library for an Al-sensitive cultivar, M. sativa L. cv. Yumu No. 1 (YM1), under 5 μm Al stress over a 24 h period was constructed to analyse changes in its gene expression in response to Al stress. Sequence analysis for the SSH cDNA library generated 291 high-quantity expression sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 229 were known as functional ESTs, 137 of which have already been reported as Al response genes, whereas the other 92 were potentially novel Al-associated genes. The up-regulation of known Al resistance-associated genes encoding the transcription factor sensitive to proton rhizotoxicity 1 (STOP1) and malate transporter MsALMT1 (Al-activated malate transporter) as well as genes for antioxidant enzymes was observed. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the reliability of the SSH data and confirmed the up-regulated expression of STOP1 and MsALMT1 under 5 μm Al stress. The analysis of physiological changes indicated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde levels were elevated rapidly under 5 μm Al stress, suggesting that severe oxidative stress occurred in the YM1 roots. The up-regulation of antioxidant-related genes might be an important protective mechanism for YM1 in response to the oxidative stress induced by 5 μm Al toxicity. Al-induced malate exudation was increased drastically during the early period after Al treatment, which might have been due to the up-regulation and function of MsALMT and STOP1. However, malate exudation from the YM1 roots declined quickly during the subsequent period, and a gradual decrease in malate content was simultaneously observed in the YM1 roots. This result is in agreement with the observation that organic acid metabolism-associated enzymes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase were not present in the SSH library. This might be a major reason for the YM1 sensitivity to Al.
Electric-pulse induced resistance (EPIR) change effect encompasses the reversible change of resistance of a thin oxide film under the application of short, low voltage pulses. The phenomenon is widely observed in complex and binary oxides, and is the basis for development of non-volatile resistance random access memory (RRAM). A variety of analytical techniques have been employed to understand the origin of the resistance change with recent data yielding a model incorporating oxygen ion/vacancy diffusion and pile-up near the interface region of the oxide at the impervious metal interface. Further efforts are still required to fine tune the model and apply it to the optimization of RRAM device development.
Along with the evolution of the closed chordate circulation, which contains blood at relatively high pressures, came the evolution of a highly muscular heart with valves separating low- and high-pressure chambers and of a vasculature lined throughout by endothelium (see Chapter 9). How is this seamless tubular system fashioned?
The myocyte has been the focus of much of the molecular work to date concerned with heart development. Yet the heart is constituted of cells with many fates, varying in specialized function from conduction to secretion to contraction. Furthermore, it has not been feasible to address at a molecular level essential issues of cardiovascular morphogenesis, especially with reference to larger-scale organotypic decisions (Fishman & Stainier, 1994). For example, are there genes that determine heart size? Are there genes that demarcate chamber borders? Are there single genes crucial to the fashioning of organotypic structures, such as endocardium or valves? Are different vascular beds assembled differently? Although many approaches might be envisioned, genetics has already proven to be powerful in revealing binary decisions during development in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. We explore here the possibilities offered by three genetic systems-Drosophila, mouse, and zebra fish-to discover the earliest molecular decisions that fashion the cardiovascular system.
Drosophila: The power of genetic screens in invertebrates
Drosophila heart development
The fly heart is a simple tubelike organ that is located at the dorsal midline beneath the epidermis and that extends nearly the length of the body. The circulation is open.
The interfacial zone between cement paste and embedded steel is a porous one, to which the rust can easily diffuse and where it can be deposited. Strengthening the zone makes the passive oxide film more complete, and harder to rupture; the rate of corrosion decreases, the initiation stage of pitting corrosion is delayed, the effect of self-catalysis is weakened, and the acceleration of corrosion is greatly decreased. Therefore, a strengthened interfacial zone can improve the anti-corrosion properties greatly, with less cost than other methods of inhibiting corrosion.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.