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To examine the association between the place of residence and receiving free samples and advice to feed the baby with infant formula.
A cross-sectional study.
The current study covered twelve counties/districts in China.
5112 mothers with infants aged 0–5·9 months.
About 16 % of the mothers received free samples of infant formula. During pregnancy, this likelihood was higher among mothers in small and medium cities (OR: 1·96; 95 % CI 1·14, 3·38) and non-poor rural counties (OR: 4·65; 95 % CI 1·65, 13·14) compared with mothers in big cities. During the hospital stay, it was lower in big cities. After discharge, it was lower in poor rural counties (OR: 0·14; 95 % CI 0·05, 0·41). About 26 % of the mothers were advised to feed their infants with infant formula. The likelihood of receiving advice to feed the baby with infant formula from hospitals was lower in non-poor (OR: 0·37; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·66) and poor rural counties (OR: 0·35; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·91) than in big cities. Mothers in non-poor rural counties were less likely to receive advice from traditional mass media (OR: 0·17; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·48), while mothers in small and medium cities were more likely to receive advice from modern mass media (OR: 1·84; 95 % CI 1·20, 2·80) compared with mothers in big cities.
The promotion strategy of infant formula varies from different places of residence in China. The study suggests the need to strengthen enforcement of relevant regulations, especially within health facilities and through modern mass media.
To examine the relative contribution for the prediction of hypertension by waist circumference (WC), waist:stature ratio (WSR) or waist:hip ratio (WHR) with that by BMI, to ascertain if WC, WSR or WHR enhances the prediction of hypertension by BMI.
Population-based, cross-sectional study. A change of ≥10 % in the prevalence ratio of BMI (PR) or the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) when WC, WSR or WHR was added to a model with BMI was used as the criterion for significant contribution to the prediction of hypertension by BMI. For greater contributions (≥10 %) these waist measures were considered as better predictors.
Nine provinces in China.
Chinese adults aged 18 to 65 years (n 7336) who participated in the 2004 China Health and Nutrition Survey.
The prevalence of hypertension (17 % and 23 % for women and men, respectively) was significantly related to increased BMI, WC, WSR and WHR (P for trend <0·001). Although there was a better model fit when WC, WSR or WHR was added to a model with BMI (P < 0·05; likelihood ratio test), the changes in PR and AUC were <10 % and <5 %, respectively. The sex-specific AUC for the prediction of hypertension by BMI (of 0·7–0·8) was similar to that by WC, WSR or WHR.
The waist indices do not perform better than BMI or markedly enhance the prediction of increased hypertension risk by BMI in Chinese adults.
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