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Acute myocarditis is one of the common complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a relatively high case fatality. Here reported is a fulminant case of a 42-year-old previously healthy woman with cardiogenic shock and refractory cardiac arrest due to COVID-19-induced myocarditis who received veno-arterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after 120 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This is the first adult case of cardiac arrest due to COVID-19-induced myocarditis supported by ECMO that fully recovered with normal neurological functions. The success of the treatment course with full recovery emphasized the potential role of ECMO in treating these patients.
The aim of this study was to determine why bystanders did not use formal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) or conduct cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the scene for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in Hanoi, Vietnam.
This was a prospective, observational study of OHCA patients admitted to five tertiary hospitals in the Hanoi area from June 2018 through January 2019. The data were collected through interviews (using a structured questionnaire) with bystanders.
Of the 101 patients, 79% were aged <65 years, 71% were men, 79% were witnessed to collapse, 36% were transported to the hospital by formal EMS, and 16% received bystander CPR at the scene. The most frequently indicated reason for not using EMS by the attendants was “using a private vehicle or taxi is faster” (85%). The reasons bystanders did not conduct CPR at the scene included “not recognizing the ailment as cardiac arrest” (60%), “not knowing how to perform CPR” (33%), and “being afraid of doing harm to patients” (7%). Only seven percent of the bystanders had been trained in CPR.
The information revealed in this study provides useful information to indicate what to do to increase EMS use and CPR provision. Spreading awareness and training among community members regarding EMS roles, recognition of cardiac arrest, CPR skills, and dispatcher training to assist bystanders are crucial to improve the outcomes of OHCA patients in Vietnam.
Fatty acid (FA) levels and profiles are vital for soybean oil quality, while cytokinins (CKs) and abscisic acid (ABA) are potent regulators of plant growth and development. Previous research suggested associations between FA biosynthesis and hormonal signalling networks; however, hormonal regulation of FA accumulation during soybean (Glycine max) seed maturation has never been measured. We analysed hormone and FA profiles obtained from HPLC-(ESI)-MS/MS and GC-FID screening during soybean seed maturation. A multilayered data processing approach, involving heat-maps, principal component analysis (PCA), correlation and multiregression models, suggested a strong relationship between hormone metabolism and FA/oil accumulation during seed maturation. Most strikingly, positive correlations were found between the levels of CK ribosides [transZeatin riboside (tZR), N6-isopentenyladenosine (iPR)] at the early stages of SM (R5-R6) and C18:0, C18:2 and oil content at the R8 stage. Moreover, multiple regression models revealed functional linkages between several CK derivatives and FA and oil content in mature seeds. To further test the significance of hormone regulation in FA metabolism, plants of two soybean accessions with contrasting hormone and FA profiles were sprayed with exogenous ABA and transZeatin (tZ) during the seed-filling period (R5-R6). Depending on the hormone type and concentration, these treatments distinctly modified biosynthesis of all tested FAs, except for C18:0. Most remarkably, tZ (50 nM) promoted production of C16:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and oil accumulation in maturing seeds. Overall, the results indicate impactful roles for ABA and CKs in FA accumulation during SM and represent a further step towards understanding FA biosynthesis, and potential improvements of soybean oil profiles.
The median duration of hospital stays due to COVID-19 has been reported in several studies on China as 10−13 days. Global studies have indicated that the length of hospitalisation depends on different factors, such as the time elapsed from exposure to symptom onset, and from symptom onset to hospital admission, as well as specificities of the country under study. The goal of this paper is to identify factors associated with the median duration of hospital stays of COVID-19 patients during the second COVID-19 wave that hit Vietnam from 5 March to 8 April 2020.
We used retrospective data on 133 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 recorded over at least two weeks during the study period. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was applied to determine the potential risk factors associated with length of hospital stay.
There were 65 (48.9%) females, 98 (73.7%) patients 48 years old or younger, 15 (11.3%) persons with comorbidities, 21 (16.0%) severely ill patients and 5 (3.8%) individuals with life-threatening conditions. Eighty-two (61.7%) patients were discharged after testing negative for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, 51 were still in the hospital at the end of the study period and none died. The median duration of stay in a hospital was 21 (IQR: 16–34) days. The multivariable Cox regression model showed that age, residence and sources of contamination were significantly associated with longer duration of hospitalisation.
A close look at how long COVID-19 patients stayed in the hospital could provide an overview of their treatment process in Vietnam, and support the country's National Steering Committee on COVID-19 Prevention and Control in the efficient allocation of resources over the next stages of the COVID-19 prevention period.
Sixteen sediment samples were collected from a square grid (4×4) with a horizontal distance of about 150 m between positions in Århus Bay in the south-west Kattegat (14 to 15 m water depth). Critical shear stress (τc) was measured in all samples and related to sediment parameters: grain-sizes, organic matter, water content, porosity, and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) content, in upper layers. Samples were divided into a low (A) τc group and a high (B) τc group in relation to an erosion rate. A significant (P<0·001) difference in median τc was found between groups A (0·0284 N m−2) and B (0·0380 N m−2). Average chl-a concentrations in groups A (1·4 μg g−1) and B (1·8 μg g−1) were not significantly different (P=0·47) but there was a significant and positive correlation (r2: 0·7, P<0·001) between τc and diatom film abundance. Sediment organic matter and water content were significantly higher in group B compared with A, which contradicts that watery and organic rich sediments generally exhibit low τc. This was explained by the presence of a diatom film cover on the fluff layer that inhibits the action of erosive forces. A fluff layer is characterized by a high water and organic content. The fluff layer was present in the majority of the samples but the highest average chl-a content and a significant (P=0·020) higher abundance of diatom film was observed in group B (high τc). Benthic diatoms were dominated by Haslea crucigeroides, Pleurosigma strigosum, and Bacillaris paxillifer. Spatial variability of sediment parameters was high and variability of a stability/erodibility parameter even exceeded those recorded for highly heterogeneous tidal flats. The occurrence of benthic diatoms at 14–15 m of water depth in the eutrophic Århus Bay was supposedly related to a measured increase in Secci depth in the bay and thereby increased light penetration depth.
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