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To determine the prevalence of and associated factors for overweight, especially to determine the relationship between the intake of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a seasoning and overweight in Vietnam.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted of Vietnamese adults aged ≥20 years in 2008. Dietary intake was assessed by the 24 h recall method for 3 d. MSG intake was evaluated by the weighing method on three consecutive days. Physical activity was assessed based on the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire recommended by the WHO. Overweight was defined as BMI ≥ 23·0 kg/m2. Other characteristics such as age and lifelong occupation were determined by a structured questionnaire.
Some rural and urban areas of Hanoi, Thua Thien Hue Province and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
A total of 1528 adults living in surveyed areas were randomly selected by the multistage cluster sampling method.
The prevalence of overweight was 27·9 %, and 81·0 % of participants were MSG users. Average MSG intake was 2·2 (sd 1·8) g/d. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that factors associated with overweight were age, region of residence, lifelong occupation, physical activity and intakes of energy, carbohydrates, saturated fat and animal protein. There was no significant association between MSG intake and overweight.
The study demonstrated that overweight was not associated with MSG intake in Vietnamese adults. Further longitudinal studies should be done in different populations to determine the relationship between MSG and overweight.
In Vietnam, nutrition interventions do not target school children despite a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. The present randomised, placebo-controlled study evaluated the impact of providing school children (n 403) with daily multiple micronutrient-fortified biscuits (FB) or a weekly Fe supplement (SUP) on anaemia and Fe deficiency. Micronutrient status was assessed by concentrations of Hb, and plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TfR), Zn and retinol. After 6 months of intervention, children receiving FB or SUP had a significantly better Fe status when compared with the control children (C), indicated by higher PF (FB: geometric mean 36·9 (95 % CI 28·0, 55·4) μg/l; SUP: geometric mean 46·0 (95 % CI 33·0, 71·7) μg/l; C: geometric mean 34·4 (95 % CI 15·2, 51·2) μg/l; P < 0·001) and lower TfR concentrations (FB: geometric mean 5·7 (95 % CI 4·8, 6·52) mg/l; SUP: geometric mean 5·5 (95 % CI 4·9, 6·2) mg/l; C: geometric mean 5·9 (95 % CI 5·1, 7·1) mg/l; P = 0·007). Consequently, body Fe was higher in children receiving FB (mean 5·6 (sd 2·2) mg/kg body weight) and SUP (mean 6·1 (sd 2·5) mg/kg body weight) compared with the C group (mean 4·2 (sd 3·3) mg/kg body weight, P < 0·001). However, anaemia prevalence was significantly lower only in the FB group (1·0 %) compared with the C group (10·4 %, P = 0·006), with the SUP group being intermediate (7·4 %). Children receiving FB had better weight-for-height Z-scores after the intervention than children receiving the SUP (P = 0·009). Vitamin A deficiency at baseline modified the intervention effect, with higher Hb concentrations in vitamin A-deficient children receiving FB but not in those receiving the SUP. This indicates that vitamin A deficiency is implicated in the high prevalence of anaemia in Vietnamese school children, and that interventions should take other deficiencies besides Fe into account to improve Hb concentrations. Provision of biscuits fortified with multiple micronutrients is effective in reducing anaemia prevalence in school children.
To characterize the relationship between serum carotenoids, retinol and anaemia among pre-school children.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in two groups: anaemic and non-anaemic. Serum levels of retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin were measured in the study subjects.
Six rural communes of Dinh Hoa, a rural and mountainous district in Thai Nguyen Province, in the northern mountainous region of Vietnam.
A total of 682 pre-school children, aged 12–72 months, were recruited.
Geometric mean serum concentrations of carotenoids (μmol/l) were 0·056 for α-carotene, 0·161 for β-carotene, 0·145 for β-cryptoxanthin, 0·078 for lycopene, 0·388 for lutein and 0·075 for zeaxanthin. The mean levels of Hb and serum retinol were 108·8 g/l and 1·02 μmol/l, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency was 53·7 % and 7·8 %, respectively. After adjusting for sex and stunting, serum retinol concentrations (μmol/l; OR = 2·06, 95 % CI 1·10, 3·86, P = 0·024) and total provitamin A carotenoids (μmol/l; OR = 1·52, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·28, P = 0·046) were independently associated with anaemia, but non-provitamin A carotenoids (μmol/l; OR = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·63, 1·37, P = 0·710) were not associated with anaemia.
Among pre-school children in the northern mountainous region of Vietnam, the prevalences of vitamin A deficiency and anaemia are high, and serum retinol and provitamin A carotenoids are independently associated with anaemia. Further studies are needed to determine if increased consumption of provitamin A carotenoids will reduce anaemia among pre-school children.
To assess the folate and vitamin B12 status of a group of Vietnamese women of reproductive age and to estimate the rate of neural tube defects (NTD) based on red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations.
Design and subjects
A representative sample of non-pregnant women (15–49 years) living in Hanoi City (n 244) and Hai Duong Province (n 245).
RBC folate, plasma vitamin B12 and plasma holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), a sensitive indicator of vitamin B12 status.
Mean (95 % CI) concentrations of RBC folate, plasma B12 and plasma holoTC were 856 (837, 876) nmol/l, 494 (475, 513) pmol/l and 78 (74, 82) pmol/l, respectively. Only 3 % and 4 % of women had plasma B12 and holoTC concentrations indicative of deficiency. No woman had an RBC folate concentration indicative of deficiency (<317 nmol/l). Only 47 % of women had an RBC folate concentration ≥905 nmol/l. Accordingly, we predict the NTD rate in these regions of Vietnam to be 14·7 (14·2, 15·1) per 10 000 pregnancies.
There was no evidence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency among this population of Vietnamese women. However, suboptimal folate status may be placing three out of five women at increased risk of NTD. Reductions in NTD rates are still possible and women would benefit from additional folic acid during the periconceptional period from either supplements or fortified foods.
To examine the effect of community-based nutrition education intervention on calcium intake and bone mass in Vietnamese postmenopausal women.
A controlled trial was conducted in two groups as intervention and control. The intervention group was given nutrition education during 18 months to improve calcium intake, while the control subjects had the usual diet. Calcium intake and bone mass were evaluated every 6 months. Bone mass was assessed by speed of sound (SOS) at calcaneus, referred to as quantitative ultrasound measurement. Anthropometric indices and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined at baseline and at the end of intervention.
Two rural communes of Hai Duong province located in the Red River Delta in Vietnam.
A total of 140 women aged 55–65 years, who were more than 5 years postmenopausal and with low calcium intake (<400 mg/d), were recruited. After 18 months of intervention, 108 women completed the study.
Calcium intake in the intervention group had increased significantly (P < 0·01) while it had no significant changes in controls. SOS values were not changed significantly in the intervention subjects while it decreased significantly by 0·5 % in the controls (P < 0·01). The intervention led to a decrease in serum PTH by 12 % (P < 0·01). In the controls, there was an increase in serum PTH by 32 % (P < 0·001).
Nutrition education intervention was effective in improving calcium intake and retarding bone loss in the studied subjects.
Previous data from Vietnam show that anaemia is highly prevalent among schoolchildren, who are considered not to be iron deficient. Trichuris infection doubled the risk of anaemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that de-worming is more effective than iron fortification in an anaemic, infection-prone population. In a trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design, 425 anaemic children aged 6–8 years were randomly assigned to receive either iron-fortified noodles or placebo, and mebendazole or placebo. Outcomes considered were change in haematological indicators of iron status (Hb, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR) and haemoglobinopathies analysis); inflammations (C-reactive protein (CRP)); parasite infection status (hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris infection); and IgE. ANOVA and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of iron fortification and de-worming on Hb, SF, TfR, body iron and anaemia. Hb improved in all groups after 6 months of intervention. Iron fortification significantly improved Hb, SF and body iron (2·6 g/l, 16·3 μg/l and 1 mg/kg, respectively). Prevalence of elevated IgE was very high at baseline (99 %) and significantly reduced to about 75 % in all groups after intervention. De-worming unexpectedly showed no effect on Hb, iron status and IgE level. It is concluded that iron fortification slightly improved anaemia and iron status in anaemic schoolchildren in rural Vietnam that were not considered iron deficient. Chronic infection or other unidentified factors may play an important role in the seasonal reduction of anaemia seen in all treatment groups.
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