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To identify attention profiles at 7 and 13 years, and transitions in attention profiles over time in children born very preterm (VP; <30 weeks’ gestation) and full term (FT), and examine predictors of attention profiles and transitions.
Participants were 167 VP and 60 FT children, evaluated on profiles across five attention domains (selective, shifting and divided attention, processing speed, and behavioral attention) at 7 and 13 years using latent profile analyses. Transitions in profiles were assessed with contingency tables. For VP children, biological and social risk factors were tested as predictors with a multinomial logistic regression.
At 7 and 13 years, three distinct profiles of attentional functioning were identified. VP children were 2–3 times more likely to show poorer attention profiles compared with FT children. Transition patterns between 7 and 13 years were stable average, stable low, improving, and declining attention. VP children were two times less likely to have a stable average attention pattern and three times more likely to have stable low or improving attention patterns compared with FT children. Groups did not differ in declining attention patterns. For VP children, brain abnormalities on neonatal MRI and greater social risk at 7 years predicted stable low or changing attention patterns over time.
VP children show greater variability in attention profiles and transition patterns than FT children, with almost half of the VP children showing adverse attention patterns over time. Early brain pathology and social environment are markers for attentional functioning.
The influence of annealing time and annealing temperature under controlled partial pressure of selenium on the in-plane electrical transport properties of specimens of [(PbSe)0.99]1[WSe2]1 turbostratic nanolaminates was studied. The annealing treatments were found to be very effective in reducing carrier concentrations and improving carrier mobility in the annealed films, which is attributed to the reduction of compositional and structural defects. As a result, room temperature Hall mobilities greater than 60 cm2 V−1·s−1 are observed in spite of the small in-plane domain sizes (on the order of 10 nm) that are related to the turbostratic disorder. The technique appears promising for decreasing the concentration of kinetically trapped defects in these and related self-assembled nanostructures, a key challenge to evaluating the expected potential for controlling electrical and thermal transport properties via designed nanostructure in these and related materials.
Crystallographic ordering and defects in WSe2 thin films with ultralow thermal conductivity are characterized by electron imaging and diffraction in cross-sectional geometry. The results show that the film consists of oriented, coherent crystallites that are a few nanometers in diameter. Two films of different thickness with different thermal conductivity are compared. We show that the film with a lower thermal conductivity is characterized by less coherent crystallites with a greater degree of misorientation.
In this paper, we extend the reduced-basis approximations developed earlier for linear elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations with affine parameter
dependence to problems involving (a) nonaffine dependence on the
parameter, and (b) nonlinear dependence on the field variable.
The method replaces the nonaffine and nonlinear terms with a coefficient function approximation which then permits an efficient offline-online computational
decomposition. We first review the coefficient function approximation procedure: the essential ingredients are (i) a good collateral
reduced-basis approximation space, and (ii) a stable and inexpensive
interpolation procedure. We then apply this approach to linear nonaffine and nonlinear elliptic and parabolic equations; in each
instance, we discuss the reduced-basis approximation and the associated offline-online computational
procedures. Numerical results are presented to assess our approach.
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