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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
A diverse millipede (diplopod) fauna has been recovered from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian) Ballagan Formation of the Scottish Borders, discovered by the late Stan Wood. The material is generally fragmentary; however, six different taxa are present based on seven specimens. Only one displays enough characters for formal description and is named Woodesmus sheari Ross, Edgecombe & Clark gen. & sp. nov. The absence of paranota justifies the erection of Woodesmidae fam. nov. within the Archipolypoda. The diverse fauna supports the theory that an apparent lack of terrestrial animal fossils from ‘Romer's Gap' was due to a lack of collecting and suitable deposits, rather than to low oxygen levels as previously suggested.
Two new species of Schramocaris from the Viséan, Lower Carboniferous of Scotland and eastern Canada extend the range and distribution of this crustacean along the northwestern coast of the Rheic Ocean. New species from Glencartholm, southern Scotland and Upperton, New Brunswick, Canada represents the first recognised occurrence of this genus in Scotland and Canada. The Scottish species is here named S. clarksoni; it lacks the rugosity of the carinae of Schramocaris gilljonesorum, but has the same relative position of the carinae, as well as similar characteristics of the pleon, such as the relative lengths of the somites and the shape of the telson. The Canadian species is named Schramocaris matthewi on the basis of the papillations on the cuticle and robust second carinae of the carapace. The deposits at both these localities are that of a shallow marine argillaceous environment, although the Glencartholm deposit contains more lime. Schramocaris has previously only been known from the Avon Group (Hastarian) of the Forest of Dean, England.
With the financial services industries in the member countries of the European Union coming under increasing attention resulting in relaxation of cross border controls, this paper addresses some pensions matters in this European context and how they may relate to the U.K. The main theme of the paper is the book reserve approach to pensions provision. Details of the German book reserve method are provided before developing possible ways in which this philosophy could be introduced into the U.K. These possibilities are assessed and consideration given to the effect they may have on the economy, commerce, the pension fund industry and, not least, the actuarial profession in the U.K.
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