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We present Locksynth, a tool that automatically derives synchronization needed for destructive updates to concurrent data structures that involve a constant number of shared heap memory write operations. Locksynth serves as the implementation of our prior work on deriving abstract synchronization code. Designing concurrent data structures involves inferring correct synchronization code starting with a prior understanding of the sequential data structure’s operations. Further, an understanding of shared memory model and the synchronization primitives is also required. The reasoning involved transforming a sequential data structure into its concurrent version can be performed using Answer Set Programming, and we mechanized our approach in previous work. The reasoning involves deduction and abduction that can be succinctly modeled in ASP. We assume that the abstract sequential code of the data structure’s operations is provided, alongside axioms that describe concurrent behavior. This information is used to automatically derive concurrent code for that data structure, such as dictionary operations for linked lists and binary search trees that involve a constant number of destructive update operations. We also are able to infer the correct set of locks (but not code synthesis) for external height-balanced binary search trees that involve left/right tree rotations. Locksynth performs the analyses required to infer correct sets of locks and as a final step, also derives the C++ synchronization code for the synthesized data structures. We also provide a performance analysis of the C++ code synthesized by Locksynth with the hand-crafted versions available from the Synchrobench microbenchmark suite. To the best of our knowledge, our tool is the first to employ ASP as a backend reasoner to perform concurrent data structure synthesis.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
This study compared the efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine and divalproex sodium in acute mania patients.
Subjects and methods
In this 12 week, randomized, double-blind pilot study, 60 patients diagnosed with acute mania (DSM-IV) and a baseline Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score of 20 or more received flexibly dosed oxcarbazepine (1000–2400 mg/day) or divalproex (750–2000 mg/day). The mean decrease in the YMRS score from baseline was used as the main outcome measure of response to treatment. A priori protocol-defined threshold scores were ≤12 for remission and ≥15 for relapse. Number of patients showing adequate response and the time taken to achieve improvement was compared. Adverse events were systematically recorded throughout the study.
Over 12 weeks, mean improvement in YMRS scores was comparable for both the groups including the mean total scores as well as percentage fall from baseline. There were no significant differences between treatments in the rates of symptomatic mania remission (90% in divalproex and 80% in oxcarbazepine group) and subsequent relapse. Median time taken to symptomatic remission was 56 days in divalproex group while it was 70 days in the oxcarbazepine group (p = 0.123). A significantly greater number of patients in divalproex group experienced one or more adverse drug events as compared to patients in the oxcarbazepine group (66.7% versus 30%, p < 0.01).
Oxcarbazepine demonstrated comparable efficacy to divalproex sodium in the management of acute mania. Also the overall adverse event profile was found to be superior for oxcarbazepine.
The aim of this paper is to introduce a new stochastic order based on the residual lifetimes of two nonnegative dependent random variables and the stochastic precedence order. We develop some characterizations and preservation properties of this stochastic order. In addition, we study some of its reliability properties and its relation with other existing stochastic orders. One of the possible applications in reliability theory has also been discussed.
Granulomatous myocarditis is a rare disease of the heart. The present case highlights a potentially life-threatening and rare tubercular involvement of the myocardium in a young woman in the form of granulomas and abscess.
We consider the problem of allocating k active spares to n components of a series system in order to optimize its lifetime. Under the hypotheses that lifetimes of n components are identically distributed with distribution function F(⋅), lifetimes of k spares are identically distributed with distribution function G(⋅), lifetimes of components and spares are independently distributed, and that ln(G(x))/ln(F(x)) is increasing in x, we show that the strategy of balanced allocation of spares optimizes the failure rate function of the system. Furthermore, under the hypotheses that lifetimes of n components are stochastically ordered, lifetimes of k spares are identically distributed, and that lifetimes of components and spares are independently distributed, we show that the strategy of balanced allocation of spares is superior to the strategy of allocating a larger number of components to stronger components. For coherent systems consisting of n identical components with n identical redundant (spare) components, we compare strategies of component and system redundancies under the criteria of reversed failure rate and likelihood ratio orderings. When spares and original components do not necessarily match in their life distributions, we provide a sufficient condition, on the structure of the coherent system, for the strategy of component redundancy to be superior to the strategy of system redundancy under reversed failure rate ordering. As a consequence, we show that, for r-out-of-n systems, the strategy of component redundancy is superior to the strategy of system redundancy under the criterion of reversed failure rate ordering. When spares and original components match in their life distributions, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition, on the structure of the coherent system, for the strategy of component redundancy to be superior to the strategy of system redundancy under the likelihood ratio ordering. As a consequence, we show that, for r-out-of-n systems, with spares and original components matching in their life distributions, the strategy of component redundancy is superior to the strategy of system redundancy under the likelihood ratio ordering.
25-Hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency is linked with predisposition to autoimmune type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to assess the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and thyroid autoimmunity. Subjects included students, teachers and staff aged 16–60 years (total 642, 244 males, 398 females). Serum free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPOAb), intact parathyroid hormone and 25(OH)D were measured by electrochemiluminescence and RIA, respectively. Thyroid dysfunction was defined if (1) serum TSH ≥ 5 μU/ml and TPOAb>34 IU/ml or (2) TSH ≥ 10 μU/ml but normal TPOAb. The mean serum 25(OH)D of the study subjects was 17·5 (sd 10·2) nmol/l with 87 % having values ≤ 25 nmol/l. TPOAb positivity was observed in 21 % of subjects. The relationship between 25(OH)D and TPOAb was assessed with and without controlling for age and showed significant inverse correlation (r − 0·08, P = 0·04) when adjusted for age. The prevalence of TPOAb and thyroid dysfunction were comparable between subjects stratified according to serum 25(OH)D into two groups either at cut-off of ≤ 25 or >25 nmol/l or first and second tertiles. Serum 25(OH)D values show only weak inverse correlation with TPOAb titres. The presence of such weak association and narrow range of serum 25(OH)D did not allow us to interpret the present results in terms of quantitative cut-off values of serum 25(OH)D. Further studies in vitamin D-sufficient populations with wider range of serum 25(OH)D levels are required to substantiate the findings of the current study.
Hypovitaminosis D is common in Asian Indians. Physicians often prescribe 1500 μg (60 000 IU) cholecalciferol per week for 8 weeks for vitamin D deficiency in India. Its efficacy to increase serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) over short (2 months) and long (1 year) term is not known. We supplemented a group of twenty-eight apparently healthy Asian Indians detected to have low serum 25(OH)D (mean 13·5 (sd 3·0) nmol/l) on screening during January–March 2005. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was supranormal in 30 % of them. Oral supplementation included 1500 μg cholecalciferol per week and 1g elemental Ca daily for 8 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D, total Ca, inorganic P and intact (i) PTH were reassessed in twenty-three subjects (twelve females and eleven males) who had follow up at both 8 weeks and 1 year. At 8 weeks the mean 25(OH)D levels increased to 82·4 (sd 20·7) nmol/l and serum PTH normalized in all. Twenty-two of the twenty-three subjects had 25(OH)D levels>49·9 nmol/l. At 1 year, though the mean 25(OH)D level of 24·7 (sd 10·9) nmol/l was significantly higher than the baseline, all subjects were 25(OH)D deficient. Five subjects with supranormal iPTH at baseline showed recurrence of biochemical hyperparathyroidism. Thus, with 8 weeks of cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian Indians with chronic hypovitaminosis D, mean serum 25(OH)D levels would be normalized and serum PTH value would be reduced to half. However, such quick supplementation would not maintain their 25(OH)D levels in the sufficient range for 1 year. For sustained improvement in 25(OH)D levels vitamin D supplementation has to be ongoing after the initial cholecalciferol loading.
Thick films of Bi–Sr–Ca–Cu–O on (100) MgO substrates have been prepared by the screen printing technique with the starting composition of 1112. The annealing process involves a two-step heat treatment. The first-step temperature is chosen between 874 °C and 898 °C for 45 min followed by slow cooling (2 °C/min) to 864 °C. In the second step, the films are kept at 864 °C for a time varying from 0 to 104 h. The Tc (R = 0) and intensity of the characteristic peaks of the high Tc and the low Tc phases in the x-ray diffraction pattern are found to be dependent on the first-step temperature and the duration of the second step. The process of crystallization and the growth of plate-like grains as a function of annealing time at the second step are studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Kinetics of the growth of the high Tc phase has been explained in terms of a reaction mechanism involving the first and second annealing steps.
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