To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Questions under this section will be presented with some data such as blood results, electrocardiogram trace, blood gases, fetal blood results, cardiotocograph (CTG), laparoscopic images, hysteroscopic images, hCG levels and culture results. These questions will be contextualised within obstetrics and gynaecology clinical conditions.. You are advised to familiarise yourself with the other conditions covered in the rest of the book.
Normal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy allows women to tolerate the inevitable blood loss associated with delivery. In early haemorrhage, vascular tone, heart rate and myocardial contractility increases to improve oxygen delivery. Cardiac output is redistributed, selectively maintaining perfusion to the adrenal glands, brain and heart at the expense of other organs, including the uterus.
The incidence of cancer is pregnancy is about 1:6000 live births. This is much lower (about 50%) than that in nonpregnant women because fewer women would fall pregnant if they were aware of the diagnosis. The diagnosis can often be delayed in pregnant women as symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain, backache and feeling unwell can be attributed to the pregnancy itself. In addition, often treatment may have to be delayed to achieve fetal maturity and this is mostly guided by the woman’s wishes. Despite these facts, there does not appear to be any difference in the stage-for-stage survival and mortality figures and the prognosis. The recent CEMACH report introduced a new section on maternal deaths due to cancers, summarising the lessons learnt as most deaths were either indirect or late; many not being reported as patients lost touch with the midwifery team. Overall, 28 cases were reported to the enquiry in the last triennium. Some cancers, particularly those that are hormone dependent, can grow rapidly in pregnancy, but factors related to tumour growth in relation to the dynamic changes in the endocrine and physiological changes in pregnancy is still poorly understood.
Kustner incision: Also referred to as a ‘modified Pfannenstiel incision’, involves a slightly curved skin incision beginning below the level of the anterior superior iliac spine and extending just below the pubic hairline. This involves a risk of injury to the superficial branches of the inferior epigastric artery or vein.
In 1969, the Family Law Reform Act provided that ‘a minor who has attained the age of 16 years could provide consent on their own behalf’. This, however, does not apply to minors under 16 years of age.