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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) types may have distinct neuropathological substrates with hippocampal atrophy particularly common in amnestic MCI (aMCI). However, depending on the MCI classification criteria applied to the sample (e.g., number of abnormal test scores considered or thresholds for impairment), volumetric findings between MCI types may change. Additionally, despite increased clinical use, no prior research has examined volumetric differences in MCI types using the automated volumetric software, Neuroreader™.
The present study separately applied the Petersen/Winblad and Jak/Bondi MCI criteria to a clinical sample of older adults (N = 82) who underwent neuropsychological testing and brain MRI. Volumetric data were analyzed using Neuroreader™ and hippocampal volumes were compared between aMCI and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI).
T-tests revealed that regardless of MCI classification criteria, hippocampal volume z-scores were significantly lower in aMCI compared to naMCI (p’s < .05), and hippocampal volume z-scores significantly differed from 0 (Neuroreader™ normative mean) in the aMCI group only (p’s < .05). Additionally, significant, positive correlations were found between measures of delayed recall and hippocampal z-scores in aMCI using either MCI classification criteria (p’s < .05).
We provide evidence of correlated neuroanatomical changes associated with memory performance for two commonly used neuropsychological MCI classification criteria. Future research should investigate the clinical utility of hippocampal volumes analyzed via Neuroreader™ in MCI.
It investigates disputes settlement relating to the maritime dimensions of the BRI, and it explores the potential use of the dispute settlement mechanism of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in relation to possible disputes relating to three subjects that may arise pursuant to the BRI: ports, navigation and military activities. In the concluding section, it observes that there is undoubtedly an important role for judges or arbitrators to play in ensuring that the implementation of the BRI remains consistent with the rights and obligations agreed under UNCLOS. How successfully this role will be played will ultimately depend on the precise details of any dispute and the final decisions of a particular court or tribunal, including the enforcement of those decisions. Courts or tribunals will likely see themselves as having a critical position in ensuring that the balance of interests agreed in UNCLOS is not jeopardised by the national strategies or priorities of any one state party.
Despite the multifactorial space of language experience in which people continuously vary, bilinguals are often dichotomized into ostensibly homogeneous groups. The timing of language exposure (age of acquisition) to a second language (L2) is one well-studied construct that is known to impact language processing, cognitive processing, and brain organization, but recent work shows that current language exposure is also a crucial determinant in these domains. Critically, many indices of bilingual experience are inherently subjective and based on self-report questionnaires. Such measures have been criticized in favor of objective measures of language ability (e.g., naming ability or verbal fluency). Here, we estimate the bilingual experience jointly as a function of multiple continuous aspects of experience, including the timing of language exposure, the amount of L2 exposure across communicative contexts, and language entropy (a flexible measure of language balance) across communicative contexts. The results suggest that current language exposure exhibits distinct but interrelated patterns depending on the socio-experiential context of language usage. They also suggest that, counterintuitively, our sample more accurately self-assesses L2 proficiency than native language proficiency. A precise quantification of the multidimensional nature of bilingualism will enhance the ability of future research to assess language processing, acquisition, and control.
Although bilinguals benefit from semantic context while perceiving speech-in-noise in their native language (L1), the extent to which bilinguals benefit from semantic context in their second language (L2) is unclear. Here, 57 highly proficient English–French/French–English bilinguals, who varied in L2 age of acquisition, performed a speech-perception-in-noise task in both languages while event-related brain potentials were recorded. Participants listened to and repeated the final word of sentences high or low in semantic constraint, in quiet and with a multi-talker babble mask. Overall, our findings indicate that bilinguals do benefit from semantic context while perceiving speech-in-noise in both their languages. Simultaneous bilinguals showed evidence of processing semantic context similarly to monolinguals. Early sequential bilinguals recruited additional neural resources, suggesting more effective use of semantic context in L2, compared to late bilinguals. Semantic context use was not associated with bilingual language experience or working memory.
The ongoing development of diverse maritime autonomous vehicles for varied ocean activities—ranging from scientific research, security surveillance, transportation of goods, military purposes and commission of crimes—is prompting greater consideration of how existing legal frameworks accommodate these vehicles. This article brings together the core legal issues, as well as current developments in relation to commercial shipping, the law of naval warfare, and maritime security. This article captures how these issues are now being addressed and what other legal questions will likely emerge as the newest technology impacts on one of the oldest bodies of international law.
This article sets out two case studies to examine the evolving reality of ‘boat migration’ and the intersecting legal frameworks at play. Our analysis takes a systemic integration approach to reflect on the complex dynamics underpinning responses to the phenomenon in Australia and the Central Mediterranean. The regime that governments purport to act under in any given instance reflects the way they choose to frame incidents and possibly exploit legal gaps in, or contested interpretations of, the relevant rules. The ‘closed ports’ strategy adopted by Italy and Malta against the MV Lifeline and the detention-at-sea policy pursued by Australia are investigated from the competing perspectives of what we call the ‘security lens’ and the ‘humanitarian lens’ to demonstrate how a good faith interpretation of the applicable (if apparently conflicting and overlapping) norms can (and should) be mobilized to save lives, and how that goal is unduly undercut when security concerns trump humanitarian interests.
Ambitions to fulfil accountability demands in humanitarian action are high, including for protection activities in armed conflict settings. However, from a Dunantist position, meeting accountability demands is often not only unsatisfactory for practical reasons, but is also inappropriate in view of humanitarian principles and flawed from related ethical perspectives. Regarding accountability primarily as a technical exercise, rather than as being linked to ethical perspectives on humanitarianism and its principles, may thus inadvertently contribute to reduced acceptability of, and ultimately reduced access for, humanitarian actors. Dunantist actors wishing to stay true to their ethical approach need new ways of thinking about accountability, a reflection which can serve as an example for an ongoing need to consider differences between actors within the humanitarian–development nexus.
Although not a recurring feature in maritime delimitation case law, the availability of provisional measures has the potential to modify State conduct and influence the temporary arrangements that States pursue pending the resolution of a maritime boundary dispute. The need for temporary arrangements is also recognised in Articles 74 and 83 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOSC), which require in paragraph 3 that States ‘in a spirit of understanding and cooperation, shall make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature and, during this transitional period, not to jeopardize or hamper the reaching of the final agreement’. These arrangements are not to prejudice the final delimitation. This chapter considers provisional arrangements under the LOSC and its case law, highlighting the judicial interpretation of the relevant LOSC provisions in Guyana v. Suriname. This analysis considers how provisional arrangements have impacted on final maritime boundaries delimited by courts and tribunals. The chapter further focuses on provisional measures, examining the criteria for ordering such measures in maritime boundary cases. The inter-relationship between provisional arrangements and provisional measures is drawn out in terms of possible overlap of standards and how the two might be expected to work in harmony.
This article compares the law and practice of the European Union and Australia in respect to the search and rescue (SAR) of boat migrants, concluding that the response to individuals in peril at sea in both jurisdictions is becoming increasingly securitized. This has led to the humanitarian purpose of SAR being compromised in the name of border security. Part I contrasts the unique challenge posed by SAR operations involving migrants and asylum seekers, as opposed to other people in distress at sea. Part II analyses the relevant international legal regime governing SAR activities and its operation among European States and in offshore Australia. Part III introduces the securitization framework as the explanatory paradigm for shifting State practice and its impact in Europe and Australia. It then examines the consequences of increasing securitization of SAR in both jurisdictions and identifies common trends, including an increase in militarization and criminalization, a lack of transparency and accountability, developments relating to disembarkation and non-refoulement, and challenges relating to cooperation and commodification.
There is a paucity of Palaeolithic art in the southern Levant prior to 15 000 years ago. The Natufian culture (15 000–11 500 BP; Grosman 2013) marks a threshold in the magnitude and diversity of artistic manifestations (Bar-Yosef 1997). Nevertheless, depictions of the human form remain rare—only a few representations of the human face have been reported to date. This article presents a 12 000-year-old example unearthed at the Late Natufian site of Nahal Ein Gev II (NEGII), just east of the Sea of Galilee, Israel (Figure 1). The object provides a glimpse into Natufian conventions of human representation, and opens a rare opportunity for deeper understanding of the Natufian symbolic system.
This panel examined the operation of International Mass Claims Commissions (IMCC), which are ad hoc international judicial institutions created to resolve specific international disputes. IMCCs generally involve a great variety and number of claims and claimants, thus providing a distinctive means to resolve international disputes. This panel seeks to evaluate the effectiveness and viability of IMCCs as international dispute resolution mechanisms. Looking in particular at the examples set by the Iran-U.S. Claims Tribunal, the UN Claims Commission, and the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, the speakers assess strengths and weaknesses of these unique institutions. Panelists also considered the use of IMCCs in future situations, as an alternative to standing international tribunals.
Maritime interceptions continue as a fundamental dimension to external border controls against irregular migration, as seen most recently in Australia's institution of Operation Sovereign Borders in late 2013. The practice of developed States has highlighted the varied application and interpretation of four bodies of international law: the law of the sea, search and rescue obligations, refugee obligations and international human rights law. This article assesses this practice and the use of laws, highlighting the fragmentation of international law that has resulted. A proposal is presented to harmonize these laws and reconcile the divergent policy perspectives of different stakeholders.