Researchers and international organisations frequently suggest that older women are disadvantaged in comparison with older men. This analysis of census and survey data from Thailand, however, indicates a far more complex association between gender and various aspects of ageing. Through an examination of various demographic, economic, psychosocial and health variables, it is found that older Thai women do face certain disadvantages compared to their male counterparts, including lower education and literacy, far higher levels of widowhood and living alone, and a lower likelihood of receiving formal retirement benefits. Older Thai men, however, also face relative disadvantages, including worse survivorship, a lower likelihood of receiving money from adult children, a greater probability of debt and other financial problems, and lower satisfaction with their financial situation. Many other demographic, psychosocial and economic measures are not significantly associated with gender. Our analysis provides some support for a lifecourse perspective, that relates gender differences in old age to differences in earlier life experiences, roles and reward structures, particularly access to retirement pensions and the type of support older men and women provide for their co-resident children. Marital status often mediates gender differences in wellbeing among older people. The study concludes with research and policy recommendations.