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The optimal treatment strategy using pulmonary vasodilators in pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD (PAH-CHD) remains controversial. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pulmonary vasodilators in PAH-CHD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched through May 2022 and a network meta-analysis was conducted. The primary outcomes were mean difference of changes in 6-minute walk distance, NYHA functional class, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. The secondary outcomes included pulmonary vascular resistance, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, and resting oxygen saturation. We identified 14 studies, yielding 807 patients with PAH-CHD. Bosentan and sildenafil were associated with a significant increase in 6-minute walk distance from baseline compared with placebo (MD 48.92 m, 95% CI 0.32 to 97.55 and MD 59.70 m, 95% CI 0.88 to 118.53, respectively). Bosentan, sildenafil, and combination of bosentan and sildenafil were associated with significant improvement in NYHA functional class compared with placebo (MD −0.33, 95% CI −0.51 to −0.14, MD −0.58, 95% CI −0.75 to −0.22 and MD −0.62, 95% CI −0.92 to −0.31, respectively). Bosentan and sildenafil were also associated with significant improvements in secondary outcomes. These findings were largely confirmed in the subgroup analysis. Various adverse events were reported; however, serious adverse event rates were relatively low (4.8–8.7%), including right heart failure, acute kidney injury, respiratory failure, hypotension, and discontinuation of pulmonary vasodilators. In conclusion, bosentan and sildenafil were the most effective in improving prognostic risk factor such as 6-minute walk distance and NYHA class. Overall, pulmonary vasodilators were well tolerated in PAH-CHD.
Catheter interventions for residual lesions in the early postoperative period after CHD operations are still not established as a reliable treatment option.
We retrospectively reviewed our institutional experience of cardiac catheterisations and catheter interventions performed in the early postoperative period. We classified our patients into two groups. The “hyper” acute phase group – operation to cardiac catheterisation of ⩽7 days – and acute phase group – operation to cardiac catheterisation from 7 to 30 days.
Of the 47 patients, catheter interventions were performed in 38 patients (81%). The success rate of the intervention was 96% in the acute phase group and 90% in the “hyper” acute phase group. The overall success rate was 95%. There were two self-limited complications in the acute phase group, but not in the “hyper” acute phase group. There were four cases of catheter interventions performed for a newly reconstructed aortic arch, and those procedures were also safe and effective.
Cardiac catheterisations and catheter interventions were safe and effective not only in the early postoperative period but also in the very early postoperative period. Catheter interventions for the left-sided heart in the early postoperative period were also safe and effective.
Palivizumab is the standard immunoprophylaxis against serious disease due to respiratory syncytial virus infection. Current evidence-based prophylaxis guidelines may not address certain children with CHD within specific high-risk groups or clinical/management settings.
An international steering committee of clinicians with expertise in paediatric heart disease identified key questions concerning palivizumab administration; in collaboration with an additional international expert faculty, evidence-based recommendations were formulated using a quasi-Delphi consensus methodology.
Palivizumab prophylaxis was recommended for children with the following conditions: <2 years with unoperated haemodynamically significant CHD, who are cyanotic, who have pulmonary hypertension, or symptomatic airway abnormalities; <1 year with cardiomyopathies requiring treatment; in the 1st year of life with surgically operated CHD with haemodynamically significant residual problems or aged 1–2 years up to 6 months postoperatively; and on heart transplant waiting lists or in their 1st year after heart transplant. Unanimous consensus was not reached for use of immunoprophylaxis in children with asymptomatic CHD and other co-morbid factors such as arrhythmias, Down syndrome, or immunodeficiency, or during a nosocomial outbreak. Challenges to effective immunoprophylaxis included the following: multidisciplinary variations in identifying candidates with CHD and prophylaxis compliance; limited awareness of severe disease risks/burden; and limited knowledge of respiratory syncytial virus seasonal patterns in subtropical/tropical regions.
Evidence-based immunoprophylaxis recommendations were formulated for subgroups of children with CHD, but more data are needed to guide use in tropical/subtropical countries and in children with certain co-morbidities.
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