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In medical practice, a patient’s loss of competency is a major obstacle when choosing a treatment and a starting treatment program smoothly. A large number of studies have revealed the lack of medical competency in patients with dementia. However, there have been only a few reports focusing on the capacity of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to make a medical choice.
In this study, we evaluated the competency of 40 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 33 normal subjects to make a medical choice using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T). We compared the judgement of a team conference using the recorded semi-structured interview with the clinical judgement of a chief clinician.
A team conference concluded that 12 aMCI patients had no competency, and the clinical judgement, without any special interview, judged that five aMCI patients had no competency. All subjects in the control groups were judged to be competent to consent to treatment by both clinicians and the team conference.
Without supplementary tools such as explanatory documents, not a few patients with aMCI were judged by a team conference to have no competency to consent to therapy even in a relatively simple and easy case. In contrast, clinical physicians tended to evaluate the competency of aMCI patients in a generous manner.
Quality of life (QOL) has become an important outcome measure in the care of dementia patients. However, there have been few studies focusing on the difference in QOL between different dementias.
Two-hundred seventy-nine consecutive outpatients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were recruited. The QOL was evaluated objectively using the QOL Questionnaire for Dementia (QOL-D).The QOL-D comprises six domains: positive affect, negative affect and actions, communication, restlessness, attachment to others, and spontaneity. General cognition, daily activities, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were also evaluated.
The scores of positive affect of QOL-D of AD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with DLB or FTD (AD 3.1 ± 0.8, DLB 2.6 ± 0.9, FTD 2.6 ± 0.7). The scores of negative affect and action of QOL-D of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB (FTD 2.0 ± 0.8, AD 1.4 ± 0.5, DLB 1.5 ± 0.6). The apathy scores of FTD and DLB patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD. The disinhibition scores of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB.
The apathy of FTD and DLB patients and depression of DLB patients might affect the lower positive affect of FTD and DLB patients compared to AD patients. The disinhibition of FTD patients might affect the abundance of negative affect & actions in FTD patients compared to AD and DLB patients.
Equational theories that contain axioms expressing associativity and commutativity (AC) of certain operators are ubiquitous. Theorem proving methods in such theories rely on well-founded orders that are compatible with the AC axioms. In this paper, we consider various definitions of AC-compatible Knuth-Bendix orders. The orders of Steinbach and of Korovin and Voronkov are revisited. The former is enhanced to a more powerful version, and we modify the latter to amend its lack of monotonicity on non-ground terms. We further present new complexity results. An extension reflecting the recent proposal of subterm coefficients in standard Knuth-Bendix orders is also given. The various orders are compared on problems in termination and completion.
The microstructural evolution of Fe–Mn–C austenitic steels, which exhibit outstanding high-ductile deformation in their plastic regions, was characterized by line-profile and texture analyses. The convolutional multiple whole profile fitting procedure was used for a line-profile analysis of 2θ−θ diffraction data to evaluate variations of crystallite size, dislocation density, and dislocation arrangement. A substantial refinement of the crystallite size proceeded at an early deformation stage. In addition, the dislocation density increased with an increase in the tensile strain. Texture evolution was characterized by the analysis of orientation distribution functions. Three texture components grew with an increase in the tensile strain. According to the pole figure describing the full width at half maximum (FWHM) distribution of the 220 reflection, the nontextured grains had more microstructural defects than the textured grains. To evaluate the microstructural defects in detail, the 220 reflection observed at each texture orientation was analyzed by the single-line-profile method. The crystallite size and dislocation density were almost comparable, irrespective of the kind of texture component. The crystallite size of the nontextured grains was also comparable to that of the textured grains, whereas the nontextured grains had a dislocation density several times that of the textured grains.
We successfully measured the mechanoluminesence (ML) from a single ML nanoparticle at the first time. In order to measure the weak light emission from a single nanoparticle induced by applying a micro force, we developed an AFM-based new apparatus with a photomultiplier. Interestingly, the emission (ML) intensity from a nanoparticle was approximately proportional to the load, the phenomena is similar to the macroscopic ML emission properties.
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