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Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
A previously described mathematical model of Zn absorption as a function of total daily dietary Zn and phytate was fitted to data from studies in which dietary Ca, Fe and protein were also measured. An analysis of regression residuals indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the residuals and Ca, Fe and protein, suggesting that the presence of any of these dietary components enhances Zn absorption. Based on the hypotheses that (1) Ca and Fe both promote Zn absorption by binding with phytate and thereby making it unavailable for binding Zn and (2) protein enhances the availability of Zn for transporter binding, the model was modified to incorporate these effects. The new model of Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn, phytate, Ca, Fe and protein was then fitted to the data. The proportion of variation in absorbed Zn explained by the new model was 0·88, an increase from 0·82 with the original model. A reduced version of the model without Fe produced an equally good fit to the data and an improved value for the model selection criterion, demonstrating that when dietary Ca and protein are controlled for, there is no evidence that dietary Fe influences Zn absorption. Regression residuals and testing with additional data supported the validity of the new model. It was concluded that dietary Ca and protein modestly enhanced Zn absorption and Fe had no statistically discernable effect. Furthermore, the model provides a meaningful foundation for efforts to model nutrient interactions in mineral absorption.
When diane middlebrook began the research for her biography of anne sexton (1928–74), she interviewed maxine kumin twice. Kumin and Sexton had been great friends and collaborators, and Kumin wrote the introduction to Sexton's Complete Poems (1981). The excerpt below is based on Middlebrook's typed transcript of a recording of a conversation that took place in Kumin's home on 9 October 1980. I abridged the transcript and submitted it to Kumin for her approval. The ellipses are part of the transcript, but the bracketed interpolations are mine. The complete interviews Middlebrook conducted for Anne Sexton: A Biography will be deposited in the Feminist Theory Archives of the Pembroke Center at Brown University.
So, I'm just like everybody else. I go to the bookstore. I pick out a book I love. If it says memoir, I know that—that maybe the names and dates and times have been compressed, because that' what a memoir is.
—Oprah Winfrey on Larry King Live, 11 January 2006
I wanted the stories in the book to ebb and flow, to have dramatic arcs, to have the tension that all great stories require. I altered events all the way through the book.
—James Frey, New York Times, 2 February 2006
Sometimes the facts threaten the truth.
—Amos Oz, A Tale of Love and Darkness
Of course it is impossible to tell the truth. For example, how does one know it? I will not belabor the difficulty by telling you how hard I have tried. And if compulsion forces me to tell the truth, it may also lead me into error, or invention.
—Kate Millett, Flying
Is it autobiography if parts of it are not true? Is it fiction if parts of it are?
“Were i a writer, and dead.” that phrase from the preface to roland barthes's 1971 sade fourier loyola embodies a slightly perverse expression of posthumous longing from the critic who composed “The Death of the Author” a few years earlier. Barthes goes on to say how much he would like it if “through the efforts of some friendly and detached biographer,” his life were “to reduce itself to a few details,” to, since he loved neologisms, a handful of “biographemes” (9). These biographical details of taste and tone would somehow transport the writer into space, scatter, touch another body—that body too would be destined to dispersal. The result would be not a whole life but a life full of holes, the way Marcel Proust, Barthes thought, wrote his.
The fortunes of Juliette are always solitary. And they are endless.
Michel Foucault, Les Mots et les choses
Within the critical canon on Juliette, it is generally acknowledged that the heroine's trajectory demonstrates the characteristics of a Bildungsroman. And Juliette's passage from innocence to sophistication, ignorance to knowledge, apprenticeship to mastery, can indeed be classified as the story of an education – even a spiritual one, for the eschatological intersects the scatalogical at every point. It has also been observed, however, that the Bildungsroman is a “male affair,” “a male form because women have tended to be viewed traditionally as static, rather than dynamic, as instances of femaleness considered essential rather than existential.” The typical subject of the genre is a sensitive young man, who, upon moving from a sheltered environment to the challenges of the world, loses an original innocence as he achieves a measure of social integration and savoir-vivre. Although radically transformed by her exposure to life as experience, Juliette represents a double exception to that formula: she does not perform in the world as the reader is likely to know it, and she is a female apprentice. Thus, reading Juliette's apprentissage as an intertext, say, to Wilhelm Meister's reveals, on one level, a text whose specificity lies in a relation of variance with an ideal (generic) model. But there is a further methodological consideration: how is the semiosis of apprenticeship generated when the feminine sign must be articulated within a system of signification in which it has no place? The answer lies in a characteristic trait of Sadean écriture: reversal.
Feminist literary criticism over the past decade has raised the important issue of woman's relationship to the production of prose fiction. Central to the inquiry have been both the desire to identify the specificity of such a “corpus” and the reluctance to define it by inherited notions of sexual difference. Reading Mme de Lafayette's La Princesse de Cléves with George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss in the context of this double agenda suggests the possibility of deciphering a female erotics that structures the plots of women's fiction, plots that reject the narrative logic of the dominant discourse. Traditionally, the critical establishment has condemned these plots as implausible and generally assigned women's novels a marginal position in literary history. Perhaps the grounds of that judgment are less aesthetic than ideological.
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