To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
It is well-known that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with changes in the dopaminergic system. However, the relationship between central dopaminergic tone and the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during receipt of rewards and penalties in the corticostriatal pathway in adults with ADHD is unclear.
Single-photon emission computed tomography with [99mTC]TRODAT-1 was used to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on subjects performing the Iowa Gambling Test.
DAT availability was found to be associated with the BOLD response, which was a covariate of monetary loss, in the medial prefrontal cortex (r = 0.55, P = .03), right ventral striatum (r = 0.69, P = .003), and right orbital frontal cortex (r = 0.53, P = .03) in adults with ADHD. However, a similar correlation was not found in the controls.
The results confirmed that dopaminergic tone may play a different role in the penalty-elicited response of adults with ADHD. It is plausible that a lower neuro-threshold accompanied by insensitivity to punishment could be exacerbated by the hypodopaminergic tone in ADHD.
Previous studies have indicated that there is dopamine transporter (DAT) dysregulation and P300 abnormality in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, the correlations among the three have not been fully explored.
A total of 11 adults (9 males and 2 females) with ADHD and 11 age-, sex-, and education-level-matched controls were recruited. We explored differences in DAT availability using single-photon emission computed tomography and P300 wave of event-related potentials between the two groups. The correlation between DAT availability and P300 performance was also examined.
DAT availability in the basal ganglia, caudate nucleus, and putamen was significantly lower in the ADHD group. Adults with ADHD had lower auditory P300 amplitudes at the Pz and Cz sites, as well as longer Fz latency than controls. DAT availability was negatively correlated to P300 latency at Pz and Fz.
Adults with ADHD had both abnormal DAT availability and P300 amplitude, suggesting that ADHD is linked to dysfunction of the central dopaminergic system and poor cognitive processes related to response selection and execution.
We investigated a cluster of postoperative febrile episodes and episodes of Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in obstetrics and gynecology wards after an electrical blackout and loss of the water supply. The use of patient-controlled analgesia was the only independent risk factor associated with postoperative fever, and A. baumannii isolates recovered from the blood of patients who had received patient-controlled analgesia were genetically related to an isolate recovered from the diluted morphine solution used for this procedure. After inappropriate preparation of the morphine solution was identified and stopped, the outbreak ended.
To investigate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on clinical and economic outcomes among hospitalized patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia.
A retrospective, matched-cohort study.
A tertiary care university teaching hospital
A matched case-control (1:1) study was conducted to compare the differences in clinical and economic outcomes of patients with MDR A. baumannii bacteremia and patients with non-MDR A. baumannii bacteremia. Case patients were matched to control patients on the basis of sex, age, severity of underlying and acute illness, and length of hospital stay before onset of bacteremia.
Forty-six (95.8%) of 48 cases with MDR A. baumannii bacteremia were eligible for the study and matched with appropriate controls. The sepsis-related mortality rate was 34.8% among cases and 13.0% among controls, for an attributable mortality rate of 21.8% (adjusted odds ratio, 4.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-15.7]; P = .036). After the onset of bacteremia, cases and controls had a significantly different length of hospital stay (54.2 vs 34.1 days; P = .006), hospitalization cost (US$9,349 vs US$4,865; P = .001 ), and antibiotic therapy cost (US$2,257 vs US$1,610; P = .014). Thus, bacteremia due to MDR A. baumannii resulted in 13.4 days of additional hospitalization and US$3,758 of additional costs, compared with bacteremia due to non-MDR A. baumannii.
Patients with MDR A. baumannii bacteremia had a higher mortality rate and incurred greater medical costs than patients with non-MDR A. baumannii bacteremia.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.