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We aim to describe the early and upto 16 months follow-up of post-coronavirus disease (COVID), multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with special reference to cardiac involvement.
This cohort non-interventional descriptive study included patients <18 years admitted between May, 2020 and April, 2021. Based on underlying similarities, children were classified as post-COVID MIS-C with overlapping Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C with no overlapping Kawasaki Disease, and MIS-C with shock. Post-discharge, patients were followed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 16 months.
Forty-one patients predominantly males (73%), at median age of 7 years (range 0.2–16 years) fulfilled the World Health Organisation criteria for MIS-C. Cardiac involvement was seen in 15 (36.5%); impaired left ventricle (LV) function in 5 (12.2%), coronary artery involvement in 10 (24.4%), pericardial effusion in 6 (14.6%) patients, and no arrhythmias. There were two hospital deaths (4.9%), both in MIS-C shock subgroup (2/10, 20%). At 1 month, there was persistent LV dysfunction in 2/5, coronary artery abnormalities in 7/10, and pericardial effusion resolved completely in all patients. By 6 months, LV function returned to normal in all but coronary abnormalities persisted in two patients. At last follow-up (median 9.8 months, interquartile range 2–16 months), in 36/38 (94.7%) patients, coronary artery dilatation was persistent in 2 (20%) patients.
Children with MIS-C have a good early outcome, though MIS-C with shock can be life-threatening subgroup in a resource-constrained country setting. On midterm follow-up, there is normalisation of LV function in all and recovery of coronary abnormalities in 80% of patients.
Transcatheter ventricular septal defect closure remains a complex procedure with potential complications like complete heart block and aortic regurgitation. The ideal device design for such intervention is still evolving.
To assess the safety, efficacy, and short-term outcome of ventricular septal defect closure using LifeTechTM multifunctional (KONAR-MFTM) VSD Occluder.
Patients and methods:
In a multicenre study, 44 patients with haemodynamically significant, restrictive ventricular septal defects underwent closure with the KONAR-MFTM device from April, 2019 to March, 2020. Clinical, echocardiographic, and angiographic data were collected and reviewed. Patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.
The median age and weight were 8 (1.7–36) years and 20 (11–79) kg. Of 44 patients, 8 (18%) had a high muscular and 36 (82%) had a perimembranous defect, of which 6 had mild prolapse of the right coronary cusp. The median ventricular septal defect size was 8.8 (3.9–13.4) mm. A retrograde approach was adopted in 39 (88.6%) patients. Nine patients (20.5%) had a small residual leak and there was a slight increase in aortic regurgitation in one patient. One device, which embolised to pulmonary artery was retrieved, and the defect was closed with a larger device. At a median follow-up of 13 (5–18) months, the residual leak persisted in 1 (2.3%) patient. Mild aortic regurgitation in one patient remained unchanged. There were no major complications.
Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect using KONAR-MFTM device is safe and effective in short and midterm follow-up including selected patients with perimembranous defect and mild prolapse of the right coronary cusp.
In patients with large patent arterial ducts and severe pulmonary hypertension, the natural history of progression of pulmonary hypertension is very variable. Whether to close or not to close is often a difficult decision, as there are no established haemodynamic parameters predicting reversibility.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the results of device closure of large patent arterial ducts with severe pulmonary hypertension after 2 years of age and to determine haemodynamic variables associated with its regression during long-term follow-up.
A total of 45 patients, with median age of 10 (2–27) years, with large patent arterial ducts and severe pulmonary hypertension, were considered. Haemodynamic variables were assessed in air, oxygen, and after occlusion. The follow-up was performed to assess regression of pulmonary hypertension.
Device closure was successful in 43 (96%) patients. Pulmonary artery systolic and mean pressures decreased from 79 to 67 mmHg and from 59 to 50 mmHg, respectively (p<0.001). At a median follow-up of 80 (41–151) months, severe pulmonary hypertension persisted in four (9.7%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed pulmonary vascular resistance index ⩽6 WU m2 and pulmonary artery systolic and mean pressures ⩽75 and ⩽55 mmHg (all in oxygen), having 97.8% predictive value for regression of pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) in the long term. In 24 patients with catheterisation-based criteria, regression of pulmonary hypertension was associated with pulmonary vascular resistance index <8 WU m2 (p=0.001) and its fall of >25% (both in oxygen) (p=0.007).
Device closure of large patent arterial ducts with severe pulmonary hypertension is safe and effective. Pulmonary vascular resistance index and systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressures in oxygen are the key prognostic variables predicting regression of pulmonary hypertension.
There are concerns over the outcome of device closure of secundum atrial septal defect with special reference to erosions and aortic regurgitation.
To assess the medium-term outcome of device closure of atrial septal defects with special reference to complications.
A total of 205 patients with secundum atrial septal defects underwent transcatheter closure from October, 1999 to April, 2009. The median age was 18 (1.4–55) years. Amplatzer Septal Occluder was used in all the patients. Medium-term follow-up was available in 176 of 200 (88%) patients.
Device closure was successful in 200 out of 205 (98%) patients. The device embolised in four patients and was associated with short inferior caval vein margin (p = 0.003). Balloon sizing in 71 patients (35%) resulted in implantation of a larger device (p = 0.002). Early complications included pericardial effusion, 2:1 heart block, and infective endocarditis (1 patient each). There were eight patients who reported migraine (3.9%). At median follow-up of 5.8 (0.6–10.3) years, complete closure occurred in 197 out of 200 patients. Short superior caval vein margin was associated with a residual shunt (p < 0.001). There were two patients who developed mild aortic regurgitation (1%), which correlated with a device-to-defect ratio of >1.3:1 (p = 0.001). There were no erosions, late embolisation, or thromboembolism. Atrial fibrillation occurred in three adults (1.5%).
Device closure of secundum atrial septal defects using Amplatzer Septal Occluder is safe and effective in the medium term. Short inferior caval vein margin correlates with increased risk of embolisation and short superior caval vein margin with a residual shunt. The risk of developing aortic regurgitation is low and correlates with increased device-to-defect ratio.
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