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We report the experience in a single institution with balloon aortic valvoplasty for congenital aortic stenosis. Unlike most other reported series, we included patients with associated lesions involving the left side of the heart.
Between November, 1986, and November, 2006, we performed 161 interventions on 143 patients, of whom 33 were neonates, 33 infants, and 77 children, just over one-quarter (28.6%) having associated lesions.
The overall reduction in peak-to-peak gradient of 60 ± 24% (p < 0.01), was more effective in primary versus secondary intervention (63 ± 24% versus 47 ± 23%; p < 0.03), and in those with fused bifoliate as opposed to truly bifoliate valves (66 ± 17% versus 53 ± 30%; p = 0.01). Patients with associated lesions were younger (40.89 ± 60.92 months versus 81.9 ± 72.9 months; p = 0.001), and were less likely to achieve a final pressure gradient of less than 20 mmHg (35.0% versus 61.2%; p < 0.01). Overall mortality was higher in cases with associated lesions (27.5% versus 1.9%; p < 0.0001) but not catheter-related death (2.5% versus 1.9%; p = 1.0). Reintervention was more frequently required in infants (p = 0.02) but not in cases with associated lesions (p = 0.35).
Balloon valvoplasty is a safe and effective method for the treatment of congenital aortic stenosis. Prior surgery to the aortic valve, reintervention, associated cardiovascular lesions, and the anatomy of the valve predict a less effective reduction in the gradient. Major complications and catheterization-related death are mainly secondary to very young age, but not to associated cardiac lesions.
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