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In this study, the radiation contamination dose (RCD) for different combinations of electron energy/distance, applicator and radius around the light intraoperative accelerator (LIAC), a high dose per pulse dedicated intraoperative electron radiotherapy machine, has been estimated. Being aware about the amount of RCDs is highly recommended for linear medical electron accelerators.
Methods and methods:
Monte Carlo Nuclear Particles (MCNP) code was used to simulate the LIAC® head and calculate RCDs. Experimental RCDs measurements were also done by Advanced Markus chamber inside a MP3-XS water phantom. Relative differences of simulations and measurements were calculated.
RCD reduction by distance from the machine follows the inverse-square law, as expected. The RCD was decreased by increasing angle from applicator walls opposed to the electron beam direction. The maximum differences between the simulation and measurement results were lower than 3%.
The RCD is strongly dependent on electron beam energy, applicator size and distance from the accelerator head. Agreement between the MCNP results and ionometric dosimetry confirms the applicability of this simulation code in modelling the intraoperative electron beam and obtaining the dosimetric parameters. The RCD is a parameter that would restrict working with LIAC in an unshielded operative room.
Intraoperative radiotherapy is a method of choice to deliver a critical radiation dose to the tumour bed immediately after surgical excision.
The purpose of this work is to check the dose delivered to the patients during intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) in the conservative treatment of breast cancer, by means of reference dose measurement using radiochromic (EBT-2) films.
Material and methods
Ninety patients with early-stage breast cancer underwent exclusive IOERT to the tumour bed using a LIAC linear accelerator. Absolute dose measurements were done with film pieces. After irradiation, the pixel values of the films were obtained via MATLAB and ImageJ softwares. Calibration curve was also used for calculating net optical density. Expected dose was compared to the patient delivered dose.
The mean deviation of the delivered dose from the expected one was 2·56% that is well in the accepted criteria. Only in one case, there was a larger deviation due to barometer miscalibration.
EBT-2 film response is independent from dose-per-pulse and as it was shown in this study it can be robustly used during breast IOERT for dosimetric and also positioning verifications.
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