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The Etanercept as Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Kawasaki Disease, a phase-3 clinical trial, showed that etanercept reduced the prevalence of IVIg resistance in acute Kawasaki disease. In patients who presented with coronary artery involvement, it reduced the maximal size and short-term progression of coronary artery dilation. Following up with this patient group, we evaluated the potential long-term benefit of etanercept for coronary disease.
Patients were followed for at least 1 year after the trial. The size of dilated arteries (z-score ≥ 2.5) was measured at each follow-up visit. The z-score and size change from baseline were evaluated at each visit and compared between patients who received etanercept versus placebo at the initial trial.
Forty patients who received etanercept (22) or placebo (18) in the Etanercept as Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Kawasaki Disease trial were included. All patients showed a persistent decrease in coronary artery size measurement: 23.3 versus 5.9% at the 6-month visit, 24 versus 13.1% at the 1-year visit, and 20.8 versus 19.3% at the ≥ 2-year visit for etanercept or placebo, respectively, with similar results for decrease in coronary artery z-scores. In a multivariate analysis, correcting for patients’ growth, a greater size reduction for patients on the etanercept arm versus placebo was proved significant for the 6-month (p = 0.005) and the 1-year visits (p = 0.019) with a similar end outcome at the ≥ 2-year visit.
Primary adjunctive therapy with etanercept for children with acute Kawasaki disease does not change the end outcome of coronary artery disease but may promote earlier resolution of artery dilation.
Sickle cell disease is known to cause various degrees of vasculopathy, including impact on heart function. The aims of this single-centre, retrospective study were to assess cardiac chamber size and function and the relationship with haematological indices such as haemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, reticulocytosis and bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase in sickle cell disease.
Right ventricle and left ventricle diastolic diameters, left ventricle mass estimate, left ventricle shortening fraction, myocardial performance index, and an index of myocardial relaxation (E/E’) were calculated and correlated with haematological parameters.
A total of 110 patients (65% haemoglobin SS, 29% haemoglobin SC) were studied at a mean age of 12.14±5.26 years. Right ventricle dilatation and left ventricle dilatation were present in 61.5 and 42.9%, respectively. Left ventricle mass was abnormal in 21.9%; all patients had normal myocardial performance index, 31.4% had abnormal E/E’, and left ventricle shortening fraction was low in 38.1%. Cardiac dilatation was best correlated with haemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, reticulocytosis and bilirubin. Best subset regression analysis yielded significant additional prediction for right ventricle or left ventricle dilatation with haemoglobin, bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase. Abnormal E/E’ was solely predictable with haemoglobin level. Hydroxyurea-treated patients had improved diastolic function.
Right ventricle dilatation was more prevalent than left ventricle dilatation. The long-term consequences of right ventricular dilatation, clinical consequences, and association with pulmonary vasculopathy need to be further determined.
In Kawasaki disease, although coronary dilatation is attributed to vasculitis, the effect of myocardial inflammation is underestimated. Coronary dilatations are determined by Z-scores, which do not take into account dominance. The aim of the present study was to describe the impact of coronary dominance on dilatation in Kawasaki disease.
We performed a retrospective analysis of coronary dilatations according to angiography categorisation of dominance.
Of 28 patients (2.6 [0.2–10.1] years), right dominance was present in 15 patients and left in 13. Early dilatation was present in all patients, of whom 11 were ipsilateral to the dominant segment and 17 contralateral. Ipsilateral dilatations were present at diagnosis (9/11 versus 6/17, p=0.02) compared with contralateral dilatations, which developed 2 weeks after diagnosis (9/11 versus 16/17, p=0.29). Coronary artery Z-scores of patients with contralateral dilatation increased at 2 weeks, before returning to baseline values (2.0±2.2 at diagnosis, 4.1±1.8 at 2 weeks, 1.8±1.2 at 3–6 months, p=0.001), compared with patients with ipsilateral dilatation in whom Z-scores were maximal at diagnosis and remained stable (3.0±0.9, 2.7±1.1 and 2.6±1.5, respectively, p=0.13). Dominant coronary artery Z-scores were higher compared with non-dominant segments at diagnosis (3.0±0.9 versus 1.0±0.8, p<0.001) and at late follow-up (2.6±1.5 versus 0.4±1.4, p=0.002) in patients with ipsilateral dilatation.
Progression of coronary dilatation after diagnosis may be a sign of dilatation secondary to vasculitis, as opposed to regression of Z-scores in ipsilateral dilatations, probably related to physiological vasodilatation in response to carditis. This needs to be validated in larger studies against vasculitic and myocardial inflammatory markers.
Dilatation of the ascending aorta is described in Turner’s syndrome with variable prevalence (6.8–32%). Reported series typically include patients with associated cardiac anomalies.
To characterise the prevalence, age of onset, and the progress of dilatation of the ascending aorta in Turner’s syndrome patients free of structural cardiac anomalies. Potential risk factors such as karyotype and growth hormone therapy were analysed for correlation with aortic dilatation.
We carried out a retrospective study with data collected from medical records and echocardiography studies. Patients with Tuner’s syndrome followed-up between 1992 and 2010 with at least two echocardiography studies were eligible. Patients with previous cardiac surgery or under anti-hypertensive medication were excluded. Ascending aorta diameter measurements were adjusted for body surface area, and dilatation was defined as Z-score>2.
The study population consisted of 44 patients, aged 11.9±7.4 years at the first echocardiogram and 17.9±7.3 years at the last follow-up, with a follow-up duration of 6.0±3.7 years. A total of 13 (29.5%) patients exhibited aortic dilatation during follow-up, suggesting an actuarial estimate of the freedom from aortic dilatation dropping from 86 to 70% and then to 37% at 10, 20, and 30 years of age, respectively. There was no statistically significant impact of karyotype or growth hormone therapy on aortic Z-score progression.
The prevalence of dilatation of the ascending aorta in Turner’s syndrome patients free of structural aortic anomalies is comparable with published data with associated lesions. Growth hormone therapy and karyotype had no significant impact; however, longitudinal follow-up is warranted.
Pressure overload increases in patients with moderate aortic valvular stenosis during exercise. In the absence of symptoms, it remains difficult, however, to discriminate patients for surgery based only on pressure overload. Other parameters, such as the dispersion of ventricular re-polarisation (d-QT), which reportedly increases with the transvalvular pressure gradient, have not been fully studied in this condition.
To determine the pattern of QT and d-QT response to exercise testing in children with moderate aortic valve stenosis in order to evaluate the impact of pressure overload from an electrophysiological perspective.
Materials and methods
In all, 15 patients were compared with 15 controls paired for age (14.8±2.5 versus 14.2±1.5 years old) and gender (66.7% male). All the patients underwent exercise stress testing with 12-lead electrocardiograph recording. QT was measured from the onset of QRS to the apex (QTa) at rest, at peak exercise, and at 1 and 3 minutes upon recovery. QT was corrected using the Fridericia equation, and d-QT was calculated.
Resting QTc was similar among the study groups, but increased significantly in study patients compared with the control group at maximal effort (p=0.004) and after 1 (p<0.001) and 3 (p<0.001) minutes of recovery. A significant association was identified between groups for d-QT (p=0.034), and post-hoc tests revealed a significant difference only at rest (p=0.001).
Ventricular re-polarisation abnormalities can be unmasked and highlighted by the assessment of electrical re-polarisation during exercise challenge in patients with asymptomatic moderate aortic valve stenosis. Using QT response to exercise could be beneficial for better optimisation of risk stratification in these patients.
We have lately documented the importance of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in aiding the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease.
We sought to investigate the potential value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide pertaining to the prediction of coronary artery dilatation (Z-score>2.5) and/or of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. We hypothesised that increased serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level correlates with increased coronary artery dilatation and/or resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin.
We carried out a prospective study involving newly diagnosed patients treated with 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin within 5–10 days of onset of fever. Echocardiography was performed in all patients at onset, then weekly for 3 weeks, then at month 2, and month 3. Coronary arteries were measured at each visit, and coronary artery Z-score was calculated. All the patients had N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide serum level measured at onset, and the Z-score calculated.
There were 109 patients enrolled at 6.58±2.82 days of fever, age 3.79±2.92 years. High N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level was associated with coronary artery dilatation at onset in 22.2 versus 5.6% for normal N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (odds ratio 4.8 [95% confidence interval 1.05–22.4]; p=0.031). This was predictive of cumulative coronary artery dilatation for the first 3 months (p=0.04–0.02), but not during convalescence at 2–3 months (odds ratio 1.28 [95% confidence interval 0.23–7.3]; p=non-significant). Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels did not predict intravenous immunoglobulin resistance, 15.3 versus 13.5% (p=1).
Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level correlates with acute coronary artery dilatation in treated Kawasaki disease, but not with intravenous immunoglobulin resistance.
Background: Lesions of adjacent structures have been reported after closure of large atrial septal defects with the Amplatzer septal occluder. In children, growth of the heart should modify the initial relationship between the device and surrounding structures. Aim: To compare the relationship between large Amplatzer septal occluder and adjacent cardiac structures at short-, mid-, and long-term follow-up in at-risk paediatric population using echocardiography. Methods: A total of 25 children (4.6±2.9 years old, 18 girls) with the largest atrial septal defect devices implanted between 1997 and 2002 were enrolled prospectively for complete echocardiogram 17.8±10.5 months (mid-term follow-up) and 8.8±0.9 years (long-term follow-up) after the procedure. Results were compared with the echocardiogram carried out 2.1±3.4 days after the procedure (short-term follow-up). Results: The minimal distance between the left disk and the mitral valve increased: 1.4±2.0 mm at short-term and 5.1±2.3 mm at long-term follow-up (p<0.05), leading to less contact between the disk and the anterior leaflet and less mitral regurgitation (10 at short-term, 4 at long-term follow-up, p<0.05). The number of devices straddling the aorta decreased from 17 to 12 at long-term follow-up (p<0.05). There was protrusion of disk in the venous structure in seven patients on the first echocardiogram, which disappeared at long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Although frequently in close contact with the aortic root, mitral valve, or venous returns, large devices tend to centre and move away from the surrounding structures, with decreased risk for long-term distortion.
A one-month-old boy, with type-II mucolipidosis, presented with congestive heart failure and elevated cardiac enzymes. The atretic nature of the orifice of the left coronary artery was revealed by retrograde flow on color Doppler and selective coronary angiography. Type-II mucolipidosis and atresia of the left coronary artery are rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of their combined occurence, suggesting a possible causal relationship.
We report the experience in a single institution with balloon aortic valvoplasty for congenital aortic stenosis. Unlike most other reported series, we included patients with associated lesions involving the left side of the heart.
Between November, 1986, and November, 2006, we performed 161 interventions on 143 patients, of whom 33 were neonates, 33 infants, and 77 children, just over one-quarter (28.6%) having associated lesions.
The overall reduction in peak-to-peak gradient of 60 ± 24% (p < 0.01), was more effective in primary versus secondary intervention (63 ± 24% versus 47 ± 23%; p < 0.03), and in those with fused bifoliate as opposed to truly bifoliate valves (66 ± 17% versus 53 ± 30%; p = 0.01). Patients with associated lesions were younger (40.89 ± 60.92 months versus 81.9 ± 72.9 months; p = 0.001), and were less likely to achieve a final pressure gradient of less than 20 mmHg (35.0% versus 61.2%; p < 0.01). Overall mortality was higher in cases with associated lesions (27.5% versus 1.9%; p < 0.0001) but not catheter-related death (2.5% versus 1.9%; p = 1.0). Reintervention was more frequently required in infants (p = 0.02) but not in cases with associated lesions (p = 0.35).
Balloon valvoplasty is a safe and effective method for the treatment of congenital aortic stenosis. Prior surgery to the aortic valve, reintervention, associated cardiovascular lesions, and the anatomy of the valve predict a less effective reduction in the gradient. Major complications and catheterization-related death are mainly secondary to very young age, but not to associated cardiac lesions.
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