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Informal carers play an essential role in the care of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). This role, however, is often fraught with difficulties, including emotional, physical, and financial. Coping styles and relationship quality have been hypothesized to influence the impact of stressors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between carers’ coping style, relationship quality, and carer burden.
Thirty-nine PD patient carer dyads were included in the study.
Participants completed self-rated questionnaires including the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Zarit Burden Interview, and Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory.
Correlational analyses found significant and positive correlation between carer burden and all three coping styles (problem-focused, emotion-focused, and dysfunctional). There was also a moderate association between carers’ perceived relationship quality and satisfaction and carer burden. Regression analyses found that carer’s gender, severity of PD, relationship quality, emotion-focused, and dysfunctional coping styles did not predict carer burden. Conversely, problem-focused coping style predicted carer burden.
The results highlight that there is no perfect way to react and care for a loved one and serves as important information for practitioners who design and implement interventions.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, and disabling neurological disorder. The incidence of PD increases with age, and therefore the disease is predominantly observed in later life. The prevalence of PD is estimated at 1% in individuals aged 60 years and over, 2–3% in those aged 65 years and over, and 10% in those aged 80 years and over (de Rijk et al., 1997). In clinical practice, PD is classified as a movement disorder and is characterized by motor symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and gait dysfunction. However, there are a large number of non-motor symptoms observed in PD, including neuropsychiatric complications, sleep disorders, fatigue, sensory symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and gastrointestinal symptoms (Chaudhuri et al., 2011).
Over two-thirds of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience comorbid neuropsychiatric symptoms, which adversely impact their quality of life and often require intervention. There is a preference for non-pharmacological, psychological approaches in addressing these symptoms. Given mobility limitations, travel burden, and cost, accessibility to psychological treatment can be problematic in this population. There has been a recent shift toward delivering care via telehealth in PD. Accordingly, this review aimed to examine remotely delivered psychological interventions for PD patients.
Most of the telehealth studies for PD involved Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) based anxiety and depression telephone interventions with relatively short (one month) follow-up periods.
Although a preliminary work indicates efficacy, future studies should demonstrate the non-inferiority of these telehealth programs compared to face-to-face delivery, and examine the long-term outcomes of remotely delivered therapy. Video-conferencing (VC) appears to be a promising modality to overcome noted limitations of telephone delivery, and has demonstrated efficacy for PD speech programs. Further research should be conducted evaluating telehealth VC modalities for delivery of psychotherapy including CBT, as well as mindfulness-based therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for remote treatment of depression and anxiety in PD.
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have become a widely recognized non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients taking dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). There are no current evidence-based recommendations for their treatment, other than reducing their dopaminergic medication.
This study reviews the current literature of the treatment of ICDs including pharmacological treatments, deep brain stimulation, and psychotherapeutic interventions.
Dopamine agonist withdrawal is the most common and effective treatment, but may lead to an aversive withdrawal syndrome or motor symptom degeneration in some individuals. There is insufficient evidence for all other pharmacological treatments in treating ICDs in PD, including amantadine, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and opioid antagonists (e.g. naltrexone). Large randomized control trials need to be performed before these drugs can be routinely used for the treatment of ICDs in PD. Deep brain stimulation remains equivocal because ICD symptoms resolve in some patients after surgery but may appear de novo in others. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to improve ICD symptoms in the only published study, although further research is urgently needed.
Further research will allow for the development of evidence-based guidelines for the management of ICDs in PD.
Emotional distress associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) increases disease burden and decreases functioning. The literature supports the benefits of psychological interventions for amelioration of emotional distress in persons with PD. The objective of this study is to apply the Contextual Adult Lifespan Theory for Adapting Psychotherapy (CALTAP) to enhancing psychological treatment for persons with PD.
This paper uses case examples to demonstrate the usefulness of the CALTAP model in helping patients and clinicians separate disease symptoms from the aging process. The examples also illustrate how working in this way can be beneficial in reducing emotional distress in persons with PD.
CALTAP contributes to helping persons with PD and persons treating them understand the effects of the disease, separate disease effects from aging processes, and think through the influences of social context, cohort effects, and cultural differences.
The CALTAP model can guide adaptations to psychological interventions for emotional distress in PD and potentially improve their effects.
Symptoms of anxiety relating to Parkinson's disease (PD) occur commonly and include symptomatology associated with motor disability and complications arising from PD medication. However, there have been relatively few attempts to profile such disease-specific anxiety symptoms in PD. Consequently, anxiety in PD is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The present study characterizes PD-related anxiety symptoms to assist with the more accurate assessment and treatment of anxiety in PD.
Ninety non-demented PD patients underwent a semi-structured diagnostic assessment targeting anxiety symptoms using relevant sections of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-plus). In addition, they were assessed for the presence of 30 PD-related anxiety symptoms derived from the literature, the clinical experience of an expert panel and the PD Anxiety-Motor Complications Questionnaire (PDAMCQ). The onset of anxiety in relation to the diagnosis of PD was determined.
Frequent (>25%) PD-specific anxiety symptoms included distress, worry, fear, agitation, embarrassment, and social withdrawal due to motor symptoms and PD medication complications, and were experienced more commonly in patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for an anxiety disorder. The onset of common anxiety disorders was observed equally before and after a diagnosis of PD. Patients in a residual group of Anxiety Not Otherwise Specified had an onset of anxiety after a diagnosis of PD.
Careful characterization of PD-specific anxiety symptomatology provides a basis for conceptualizing anxiety and assists with the development of a new PD-specific measure to accurately assess anxiety in PD.
Assessing anxiety in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been a recent focus, and a number of studies have extensively investigated the validity of anxiety rating scales in PD. The present review aims to provide an overview of anxiety scales widely used and/or validated in PD, and to highlight recommendations for future research required in this area.
A literature search was performed using terms such as Parkinson* disease, psychiatric, depress*, anxiety, assessment, scales, and valid* in PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. Validation studies and reviews focussed on assessment of anxiety in PD were included.
The literature search identified nine anxiety rating scales. The new Parkinson's Anxiety Scale (PAS) showed good psychometric properties. Having a simple design appropriate for older adults and items focussed on cognitive anxiety, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) also appeared promising for use in PD. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) did not demonstrate satisfactory psychometric characteristics when used in PD, while other scales had limited or no evidence of validity or reliability to infer judgments.
PAS and GAI are can be recommended for use in PD without dementia. Usefulness of these scales to assess anxiety in dementia should be examined in the future. Moreover, the complex symptomatology of anxiety relating to “off” PD medication states were not addressed in these scales. Further research is required to develop an anxiety scale tailored for PD.
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