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Experimental results obtained with “Kanal-2” facility under the study of powerful laser pulse interaction with the low density microstructure media are presented and discussed in this paper. Forward scattering, back scattering, and transmission of laser radiation by aerogel foil plasma have been investigated. The temporal, spectral, and energy characteristics of both the radiation scattering in the direction of heating radiation beam and the back scattering radiation were studied; the directional diagrams of forward and back scattering radiation were obtained for ω0 and 2ω0 frequencies. Analysis of intensity redistribution on the heating beam cross-section after passing through a polymer microstructure target was carried out.
New results obtained in experiments on laser irradiation (I = 5 × 1013 W/cm2, λ = 1.054 µm) of low-density (2–10 mg/cm3) porous materials (agar, triacetate cellulose, and foam polysterene) are presented and discussed from the standpoint of optimum porous material utilization in target designs for inertial confinement fusion. The influence of low-density material microstructure of irradiated samples on the absorption of laser radiation and the energy transfer processes was investigated using X-ray and optical diagnostic methods with high temporal and spatial resolution.
The experience of target fabrication with low-density and cluster
heterogeneity is presented. Cluster plasma research is strongly dependent
on target fabrication development and target structure characterization.
Ten more target parameters should be measured for experiment interpreting
in case of micro-heterogeneous plasma. Foam and foil targets, high-Z doped
also, are produced and irradiated on the existing laser facilities. The
density of 4.5 mg/cc cellulose triacetate in the form of regular
three-dimensional polymer networks are achieved which is as low as plasma
critical density for the third harmonic of iodine laser light. The
possibilities of varying important target parameters, methods of their
monitoring are discussed. Experiments with underdense foam targets with or
without clusters irradiated on Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) laser
facility are analyzed preliminary for target optimization. Under-critical
foams of varying structure (closed-cell foam or three-dimensional
networks) and densities are reported for plasma experiments. Thermal and
radiation transport in such targets are considered.
Popular target designs are reviewed. Possible methods of fusion
target fabrication are discussed and the equipment and samples are
demonstrated. The properties of the uniform and structured (cluster)
materials are considered, showing the advantage of cluster material for
energy conversion into soft X rays. The target materials with high
content of hydrogen isotopes (BeD2, LiBeD3, or
ND3BD3) prove to be more effective for high-power
drivers in comparison with beryllium or polyimide.
Recently much attention has been paid to multilayer
inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets, among them the
targets with low-density layers. This allows one to get
a number of interesting results using the presently existing
and future facilities. This concerns the volume absorption
of the laser radiation in a porous matter of the density
higher than the critical plasma density, and the formation
of the radiation absorption region under condition of increasing
geometric opacity of the low-density matter. We consider
the low-density foams, 3D nets, free-standing “snow-like”
layers, and pseudo low-density layers. We use artificial
foam as a convenient model to allow easier comparison of
the experimental laser shot data and the simulation. The
requirements to such layers are also analyzed. The methods
of precision control of the low-density targets are discussed.
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