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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Influenza A(H1N1) viruses of the 2009 pandemic (A(H1N1)pdm09) continue to cause outbreaks in the post-pandemic period. During January to May 2015, an upsurge of influenza was recorded that resulted in high fatality in central India. Genetic lineage, mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene and infection by quasi-species are reported to affect disease severity. The objective of this study is to present the molecular and epidemiological trends during the 2015 influenza outbreak in central India. All the referred samples were subjected to qRT–PCR for diagnosis. HA gene sequencing (23 survivors and 24 non-survivors) and cloning were performed and analyzed using Molecular Evolutionary Genomic Analyzer (MEGA 5·05). Of the 3625 tested samples, 1607 (44·3%) were positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, of which 228 (14·2%) individuals succumbed to death. A significant trend was observed in positivity (P = 0·003) and mortality (P < 0·0001) with increasing age. The circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was characterized as belonging to clade-6B. Clinically significant mutations were detected. Patients infected with the quasi-species of the virus had a greater risk of death (P = 0·009). This study proposes a robust molecular and clinical surveillance program for the detection and characterization of the virus, along with prompt treatment protocols to prevent outbreaks.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
We report static and time-resolved terahertz (THz) conductivity measurements of a highperformance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a PEDOT:PSS matrix. Composites were made with and without sulfur passivation of the nanowires surfaces. The material with sulfur linkers (TeNW/PD-S) is less conductive but has a longer carrier lifetime than the formulation without (TeNW/PD). We find real conductivities at f = 1THz of σTeNW/PD = 160 S/cm and σTeNW/PD-S = 5.1 S/cm. These values are much larger than the corresponding DC conductivities, suggesting DC conductivity is limited by structural defects. The free-carrier lifetime in the nanowires is controlled by recombination and trapping at the nanowire surfaces. We find surface recombination velocities in bare tellurium nanowires (22m/s) and TeNW/PD-S (40m/s) that are comparable to evaporated tellurium thin films. The surface recombination velocity in TeNW/PD (509m/s) is much larger, indicating a higher interface trap density.
We present multiwavelength study of a sample of radio loud early-type galaxies chosen from the B2 sample. We performed surface photometry in BVR broad band filters and Hα narrow band filter on CCD images of sample galaxies using IGO 2m telescope, Pune (INDIA), to get radial profiles of various photometric and geometrical parameters that describe elliptical isophotes fitted to the 2D light distribution of the galaxies. The analysis of radial profiles of quantities such as the (local) surface brightness, the ellipticity, and the deviations from elliptical isophotes parametrized by the Fourier coefficients are main focus of our study. We generated color maps, residual maps, and dust extinction maps, Hα emission maps of the galaxies to study the morphology of the dust and ionized gas content present in the galaxies. We carried out detailed analysis of the properties of the dust present in our sample galaxies. Additionaly, we investigated properties of the dust in the central ~10 arcsec region of our sample galaxies using optical images available from the HST (WFPC2) data archive. We estimated mass and temperature of the dust, molecular gas mass, in the sample galaxies using FIR fluxes of the galaxies obtained from IRAS.
We used spectroscopic data available from the SDSS (DR7) to get an estimate of the mass of the central super massive black-hole for B2 1257+28 (NGC 4874). We plotted rotation curve for coma cluster (Abell 1656), which indicates the presence of dark matter halo around the galaxy B2 1257+28.
We report on the effect of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium's (INICC) multidimensional approach for the reduction of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in adult patients hospitalized in 21 intensive-care units (ICUs), from 14 hospitals in 10 Indian cities. A quasi-experimental study was conducted, which was divided into baseline and intervention periods. During baseline, prospective surveillance of VAP was performed applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network definitions and INICC methods. During intervention, our approach in each ICU included a bundle of interventions, education, outcome and process surveillance, and feedback of VAP rates and performance. Crude stratified rates were calculated, and by using random-effects Poisson regression to allow for clustering by ICU, the incidence rate ratio for each time period compared with the 3-month baseline was determined. The VAP rate was 17·43/1000 mechanical ventilator days during baseline, and 10·81 for intervention, showing a 38% VAP rate reduction (relative risk 0·62, 95% confidence interval 0·5–0·78, P = 0·0001).
This paper presents the powder X-ray diffraction data of BaFI recorded using a Guinier diffractometer and Mo Kα1 radiation. BaFI stabilizes at standard temperature of 25 °C and standard-atmospheric pressure (STP) in the tetragonal structure (space group P4/nmm; No. 129) with lattice parameters a=4.660(1) Å and c=7.960(5) Å. Our observed pattern is different from the existing observed powder diffraction data reported in the PDF files 34-716 (Beck, 1976) and 31-139 (), but matches almost perfectly with the pattern calculated by us from the reported single crystal data ( and with the calculated data available in PDF file 70-0481. Further, our data provide a number of new Bragg peaks extending beyond the range of d values available in the existing PDF files.
The X-ray diffraction data for the single phase UAl4 are reported. The data were obtained with a Huber–Guinier diffractometer with MoKα1 radiation. The unit cell of UAl4 is orthorhombic (space group Imma) with lattice parameters a=4.396 Å, b=6.251 Å, and c=13.699 Å.
UBVRI photometry and low resolution optical spectroscopy of the type IIb SN 2011dh in M51 are presented, covering the first year after the explosion. The peak absolute magnitude in V-band of −17.12±0.18 mag indicates SN 2011dh to be a normal bright type IIb event. The peak quasi-bolometric luminosity indicates that ~ 0.06 M⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized in the explosion. The He I lines were detected in the spectra much before the maximum light in B-band. The nebular spectra of SN 2011dh show a box shaped emission in the red wing of [OI] 6300, 6363 line due to Hα emission excited because of shock-wave interaction. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates a progenitor with a main sequence mass of 10-15 M⊙.
The UBVRI photometric follow-up of SN 2011fu has been initiated a few days after the explosion, shows a rise followed by steep decay in all bands and shares properties very similar to that seen in case of SN 1993J, with a possible detection of the adiabatic cooling phase at very early epochs. The spectral modeling performed with SYNOW suggests that the early-phase line velocities for H and Fe ii features were ~ 16000 km s−1 and ~ 14000 km s−1, respectively. Studies of rare class of type IIb SNe are important to understand the evolution of the possible progenitors of core-collapse SNe in more details.
An incident beam X-ray collimator for Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been developed. Alignment of the collimator is carried out in situ while viewing the image of the collimated X-ray spot formed on a thin layer of fluorescent material spread on the diamond anvil culets with the help of a microscope. Special precaution has been taken to meet the radiation safety requirements during alignment and routine use. This collimator is of immense help for laboratory based high pressure X-ray diffraction experiments.
Forest birds were surveyed on the islands of Flores and Sumbawa, Indonesia, in July-September 1993. Assessments were made of the conservation status and habitat requirements of the restricted-range, threatened, and near-threatened species. Semi-evergreen rainforest was found to be more important than moist deciduous monsoon forest for the conservation of these species, but such habitat is being rapidly degraded at mid-altitudes and in the lowlands. Moist deciduous monsoon forest is still widespread in the lowlands but it is also being degraded by human activities. Only one significant protected area exists in the region: Taman Nasional Komodo. This harbours an important population of Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea but it is too dry o t support any semi-evergreen rainforest. Ten of the 24 restricted-range species found on these islands are of particular conservation importance mainly because of combinations of intolerance of degraded habitat, dependence on semi-evergreen rainforest, restriction to the lowlands, and low population densities. The highest priority species are Flores Monarch Monarcha sacerdotum and Wallace's Hanging-parrot Loriculus flosculus, which were only found in semi-evergreen rainforest at about 450-950 m at one site in the Tanjung Kerita Mese proposed protected area in south-west Flores. Effective protection of this site is urgently required in order to help secure the future of these species. Recommendations are presented for the protection of further areas on Flores and Sumbawa.
We present a statistical method to derive the mass functions of open clusters using sky survey data such as the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC). We have used this method to derive the mass functions in the stellar/substellar regime of three young, nearby open clusters, namely IC 348, σ Orionis and Pleiades. The mass function in the low mass range (M< 0.50M⊙) is appreciably flatter than the stellar Salpeter function for all three open clusters. The contribution of objects below 0.5 M⊙ to the total mass of the cluster is ~40% and the contribution of objects below 0.08 M⊙ to the total is ~4%.
Kinematic study of the multiple shell PN NGC 3242 was carried out by obtaining Hα and [O III] line profiles at 9 positions of the nebula using a high-resolution (R ≅ 50,000) Fabry-Pérot spectrometer. The positions cover both the bright inner shell and the faint outer shell. It is shown here that the two apparently continuous shells are kinematically separate: the faint outer shell was ejected ∼ 5000 years earlier and has less expansion velocity than the bright inner shell.
The quartz-sillimanite-garnet rocks of the Precambrian khondalite assemblage of Orissa consist dominantly of SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 + FeO (average c. 95%) with Fe2O3 > FeO. An average analysis (H2O and CO2 free) also shows MgO, CaO and Na2O having 1·0, 0·5 and 0·4%, respectively. Compared with average crustal abundances, enrichment is shown in SiO2, Al2O3 and Fetot and depletion shown in MgO, CaO, Na2O and P2O5 with that for CaO being more than an order of magnitude and that for Na2O being a factor of >7. On an SiO2–Al2O3–Fetot plot a clearly defined field, elongate nearly parallel to the SiO2–Al2O3 sideline, is similar to that for deeply weathered soil profiles in Brazil. This correspondence also extends to enrichment, stability or depletion, compared to crustal averages, for Ce, Co, Cu, Ga, La, Ni, Nb, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr, but not for Ba, Cr and Rb. In addition comparison of the proportions and ratios of alkalis and alkaline earths in average khondalite and in a weathering profile over a granodiorite, considered to be typical of the weathering of continents, shows remarkable similarities.
The major and trace element data are consistent with the khondalites being granulite facies—upper amphibolite facies metamorphic equivalents of a deeply weathered soil profile. Associated quartzites and calc-silicate granulites are interpreted as having been silcretes and calcretes, respectively. This interpretation implies (1) the previous existence of a large stable cratonic mass on which the soil profile formed, (2) climatic conditions suitable for the development of such a profile, (3) topography, drainage systems and groundwater movement in Precambrian times similar to those of present day peneplane regions, (4) the presence of free oxygen in the atmosphere, (5) rapid covering (e.g. by products of volcanism) to preclude mass wasting, (6) a Precambrian stratigraphy in the crystalline rocks of the Eastern Ghats region similar to that of South India, and (7) orogenesis that involved tectonic repetition of lithological units and a mechanism for taking products of surface weathering down to granulite facies P–T conditions and subsequently elevating them.
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