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The Sargur Group has been considered to be the oldest group (>3.0 Ga) in the Archaean sequence of the Dharwar Craton in south India, whereas the rocks of the Dharwar Supergroup are younger (between 3.0 and 2.55 Ga). The supracrustal units of the Sargur Group were deposited during the Archaean period. The Banavara quartzite forms part of the supracrustal Sargur Group and contains significant amounts of chromian spinel (Cr-spinel). Here, U–Pb and Hf isotopes of detrital zircons are integrated with compositional data and X-ray refinement parameters for Cr-spinels to decipher the provenance of the metasediments. Zircons show an age spectrum from 3.15 to 2.50 Ga, and juvenile Hf isotopic compositions (ϵHf = +0.8 to +6.4) with model ages between 3.3 and 3.0 Ga. Major- and trace-element contents of the Cr-spinels do not resemble those in the Sargur ultramafic rocks, but resemble well-characterized Archaean anorthosite-hosted chromites. Cr-spinel trace-element signatures indicate that they have undergone secondary alteration or metamorphism. X-ray refinement parameters for the Cr-spinels also resemble the anorthosite-hosted chromites. We conclude that the detrital minerals were probably derived from gneissic and anorthositic rocks of the Western Dharwar Craton, and that the Sargur Group sequences have experienced a younger (2.5 Ga) metamorphic overprint.
Ecosystem modeling, a pillar of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP), addresses questions such as, how much carbon and nitrogen are cycled within ecological sites, landscapes, or indeed the earth system? Or how are human activities modifying these flows? Modeling, when coupled with field and laboratory studies, represents the essence of the SEP in that they embody accumulated knowledge and generate hypotheses to test understanding of ecosystem processes and behavior. Initially, ecosystem models were primarily used to improve our understanding about how biophysical aspects of ecosystems operate. However, current ecosystem models are widely used to make accurate predictions about how large-scale phenomena such as climate change and management practices impact ecosystem dynamics and assess potential effects of these changes on economic activity and policy making. In sum, ecosystem models embedded in the SEP remain our best mechanism to integrate diverse types of knowledge regarding how the earth system functions and to make quantitative predictions that can be confronted with observations of reality. Modeling efforts discussed are the Century ecosystem model, DayCent ecosystem model, Grassland Ecosystem Model ELM, food web models, Savanna model, agent-based and coupled systems modeling, and Bayesian modeling.
Energy deficit is common during prolonged periods of strenuous physical activity and limited sleep, but the extent to which appetite suppression contributes is unclear. The aim of this randomised crossover study was to determine the effects of energy balance on appetite and physiological mediators of appetite during a 72-h period of high physical activity energy expenditure (about 9·6 MJ/d (2300 kcal/d)) and limited sleep designed to simulate military operations (SUSOPS). Ten men consumed an energy-balanced diet while sedentary for 1 d (REST) followed by energy-balanced (BAL) and energy-deficient (DEF) controlled diets during SUSOPS. Appetite ratings, gastric emptying time (GET) and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations were measured. Energy balance was positive during BAL (18 (sd 20) %) and negative during DEF (–43 (sd 9) %). Relative to REST, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption ratings were all higher during DEF (26 (sd 40) %, 56 (sd 71) %, 28 (sd 34) %, respectively) and lower during BAL (–55 (sd 25) %, −52 (sd 27) %, −54 (sd 21) %, respectively; Pcondition < 0·05). Fullness ratings did not differ from REST during DEF, but were 65 (sd 61) % higher during BAL (Pcondition < 0·05). Regression analyses predicted hunger and prospective consumption would be reduced and fullness increased if energy balance was maintained during SUSOPS, and energy deficits of ≥25 % would be required to elicit increases in appetite. Between-condition differences in GET and appetite-mediating hormones identified slowed gastric emptying, increased anorexigenic hormone concentrations and decreased fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations as potential mechanisms of appetite suppression. Findings suggest that physiological responses that suppress appetite may deter energy balance from being achieved during prolonged periods of strenuous activity and limited sleep.
To assess the contribution of different food groups to total salt purchases and to evaluate the estimated reduction in salt purchases if mandatory maximum salt limits in South African legislation were being complied with.
This study conducted a cross-sectional analysis of purchasing data from Discovery Vitality members. Data were linked to the South African FoodSwitch database to determine the salt content of each food product purchased. Food category and total annual salt purchases were determined by summing salt content (kg) per each unit purchased across a whole year. Reductions in annual salt purchases were estimated by applying legislated maximum limits to product salt content.
The study utilised purchasing data from 344 161 households, members of Discovery Vitality, collected for a whole year between January and December 2018.
Vitality members purchased R12·8 billion worth of food products in 2018, representing 9562 products from which 264 583 kg of salt was purchased. The main contributors to salt purchases were bread and bakery products (23·3 %); meat and meat products (19 %); dairy (12·2 %); sauces, dressings, spreads and dips (11·8 %); and convenience foods (8·7 %). The projected total quantity of salt that would be purchased after implementation of the salt legislation was 250 346 kg, a reduction of 5·4 % from 2018 levels.
A projected reduction in salt purchases of 5·4 % from 2018 levels suggests that meeting the mandatory maximum salt limits in South Africa will make a meaningful contribution to reducing salt purchases.
A survey of acute-care hospitals found that rapid molecular diagnostic tests (RMDTs) have been widely adopted. Although many hospitals use their antimicrobial stewardship team and/or guidelines to help clinicians interpret results and optimize treatment, opportunities to more fully achieve the potential benefits of RMDTs remain.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has greatly impacted health-care systems worldwide, leading to an unprecedented rise in demand for health-care resources. In anticipation of an acute strain on established medical facilities in Dallas, Texas, federal officials worked in conjunction with local medical personnel to convert a convention center into a Federal Medical Station capable of caring for patients affected by COVID-19. A 200,000 square foot event space was designated as a direct patient care area, with surrounding spaces repurposed to house ancillary services. Given the highly transmissible nature of the novel coronavirus, the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) was of particular importance for personnel staffing the facility. Furthermore, nationwide shortages in the availability of PPE necessitated the reuse of certain protective materials. This article seeks to delineate the procedures implemented regarding PPE in the setting of a COVID-19 disaster response shelter, including workspace flow, donning and doffing procedures, PPE conservation, and exposure event protocols.
The Minimal Data Set are demographic and tobacco use questions asked during enrollment at many quitlines. We tested whether these questions can be used to predict program engagement and success, and to evaluate whether findings can inform the tailoring of protocols to disparate populations. We analyzed 7,920 Arizona Smokers' Helpline treatment records to test a Structural Equation Model of the mediating effects of quitline services and short-term cessation outcomes on the relationship between intake questions and 7-month quit rate. Education (b = 0.05), gender (b = 0.03), Medicaid (b = −0.09), longest length of previous quit attempt (b = 0.05), confidence in quitting for 24 h (b = 0.04), environmental risk (b = −0.05), and life stress (b = 0.04) all significantly (P < 0.05) predicted engagement in quitline services. Program engagement had a direct effect on an in-program cessation outcomes construct (b = 0.47) and 7-month quit rate (b = 0.44). This in-program cessation outcomes construct had a significant direct effect on 7-month quit rate (b = −0.12). This model showing the relationship between program engagement and outcomes suggests that tailoring protocols can focus on engaging clients who have historically not taken full advantage of quitline services.
Apart from its role as a digestive and absorptive organ, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a vital immune organ that encompasses roughly 70 % of the total immune cells of the body. As such, the physical, chemical and nutrient composition of the diet influences overall GI function, effectively as an immune organ. With the improvement in feed technology, agro-industrial co-products that are high in fibre have been widely used as a feed ingredient in the diets of pigs and poultry. Arabinoxylan (AX) and mannan are the most abundant hemicellulosic polysaccharides present in cereal grain and co-product ingredients used in the livestock industry. When monogastric animals consume diets containing high amounts of AX and mannans, stimulation of GI immune cells may occur. This involves the activation of several cellular and molecular pathways of the immune system and requires a considerable amount of energy and nutrients to be expended by the animal, which may ultimately influence overall health and growth performance of animals. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of AX and mannan in immune modulation will be helpful in modulating untoward GI immune responses, thereby minimising nutrient and energy expenditure toward this effort. This review will summarise pertinent research on the role of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides containing AX and mannans in immune modulation in order to preserve gut integrity.
Reconstructions of prehistoric vegetation composition help establish natural baselines, variability, and trajectories of forest dynamics before and during the emergence of intensive anthropogenic land use. Pollen–vegetation models (PVMs) enable such reconstructions from fossil pollen assemblages using process-based representations of taxon-specific pollen production and dispersal. However, several PVMs and variants now exist, and the sensitivity of vegetation inferences to PVM selection, variant, and calibration domain is poorly understood. Here, we compare the reconstructions, parameter estimates, and structure of a Bayesian hierarchical PVM, STEPPS, both to observations and to REVEALS, a widely used PVM, for the pre–Euro-American settlement-era vegetation in the northeastern United States (NEUS). We also compare NEUS-based STEPPS parameter estimates to those for the upper midwestern United States (UMW). Both PVMs predict the observed macroscale patterns of vegetation composition in the NEUS; however, reconstructions of minor taxa are less accurate and predictions for some taxa differ between PVMs. These differences can be attributed to intermodel differences in structure and parameter estimates. Estimates of pollen productivity from STEPPS broadly agree with estimates produced for use in REVEALS, while comparison between pollen dispersal parameter estimates shows no significant relationship. STEPPS parameter estimates are similar between the UMW and NEUS, suggesting that STEPPS parameter estimates are transferable between floristically similar regions and scales.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a persistent and potentially disabling movement disorder associated with prolonged exposure to antipsychotics and other dopamine receptor blocking agents. Valbenazine is a highly selective vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of TD in adults. Using data from a long-term study (KINECT 3; NCT02274558), the effects of once-daily valbenazine (40 mg, 80 mg) on TD were assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) in participants who were early responders based on subjective measures, including patient self-report (Patient Global Impression of Change [PGIC]) or clinician judgment (Clinical Impression of Change-Tardive Dyskinesia [CGI-TD]).
Data from KINECT 3 (6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled [DBPC] period; 42-week double-blind extension) were analyzed post hoc. Long-term outcomes included mean change from baseline to Week 48 in AIMS total score (sum of items 1-7) and AIMS response (≥50% total score improvement from baseline) at Week 48. These AIMS outcomes were assessed in participants who achieved early improvement, defined as a PGIC or CGI-TD score of ≤3 (“minimally improved” or better) at Week 2 (first post-baseline visit of the DBPC period). Participants who initially received placebo were not included in the analyses.
In participants who received only valbenazine (40 or 80 mg) during KINECT 3 and had available Week 2 assessment, 50% (72/143) had early PGIC improvement (score ≤3) and 43% (61/142) had early CGI-TD improvement (score ≤3). Baseline characteristics were generally similar between participants who achieved early PGIC or CGI-TD improvement and those who did not. Based on available assessments at Week 48, mean AIMS total score change from baseline in participants with early PGIC improvement was similar to those who did not reach the early PGIC improvement threshold (-4.1 [n=35] vs -3.5 [n=41]). Mean AIMS total score change from baseline in participants with early CGI-TD improvement was similar to those who did not achieve early CGI-TD improvement (-4.2 [n=31] vs -3.5 [n=45]). AIMS response at Week 48 was also similar in those who achieved early PGIC and CGI-TD improvement (40% and 42%, respectively) compared to those who did not achieve early PGIC and CGI-TD improvement (39% and 38%, respectively).
Results from this long-term valbenazine trial indicate that many participants achieved at least minimal patient- and clinician-reported improvement at Week 2. AIMS outcomes at Week 48 demonstrated long-term reductions in TD severity regardless of early response. More research is needed to understand the association between early improvement and long-term treatment effects, but early non-improvement based on subjective measures may not be predictive of long-term treatment failure.
International Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders; September 22-26, 2019; Nice, France.
This study was sponsored by Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
“Precision medicine” and “personalized medicine” constitute goals of research since antiquity and this was intensified with the arrival of the “evidence-based medicine.” precision and personalized psychiatry (3P) when achieved will constitute a radical shift in our paradigm and it will be even more transformative than in other fields of medicine. The biggest problems so far are the problematic definition of mental disorder, available treatments seem to concern broad categories rather than specific disorders and finally clinical predictors of treatment response or side effects and biological markers do not exist. Precision and personalized psychiatry like all precision medicine will be a laborious and costly task; thus the partnership of scientists with industry and the commercialization of new methods and technologies will be an important element for success. The development of an appropriate legal framework which will both support development and progress but also will protect the rights and the privacy of patients and their families is essential.
The National Institutes of Health requires data and safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) for all phase III clinical trials. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute requires DSMBs for all clinical trials involving more than one site and those involving cooperative agreements and contracts. These policies have resulted in the establishment of DSMBs for many implementation trials, with little consideration regarding the appropriateness of DSMBs and/or key adaptations needed by DSMBs to monitor data quality and participant safety. In this perspective, we review the unique features of implementation trials and reflect on key questions regarding the justification for DSMBs and their potential role and monitoring targets within implementation trials.
There is increasing interest in the clinical and aetiological overlap between autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, reported to co-occur at both diagnostic and trait levels. Individually, sub-clinical autistic and psychotic traits are associated with poor clinical outcomes, including increased depressive symptomatology, self-harming behaviour and suicidality. However, the implications when both traits co-occur remain poorly understood. The study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between autistic and psychotic traits and (2) determine if their co-occurrence increases depressive symptomatology, self-harm and suicidality.
Cross-sectional data from a self-selecting (online and poster advertising) sample of the adult UK population (n = 653) were collected using an online survey. Validated self-report measures were used to assess sub-clinical autistic and psychotic traits, depressive symptomatology, self-harming behaviour and suicidality. Correlation and regression analyses were performed.
A positive correlation between sub-clinical autistic and positive psychotic traits was confirmed (rs = 0.509, p < 0.001). Overall, autistic traits and psychotic traits were, independently, significant predictors of depression, self-harm and suicidality. Intriguingly, however, depression was associated with a negative interaction between the autistic domain attention to detail and psychotic traits.
This study supports previous findings that sub-clinical autistic and psychotic traits are largely independently associated with depression, self-harm and suicidality, and is novel in finding that their combined presence has no additional effect on depression, self-harm or suicidality. These findings highlight the importance of considering both autistic and psychotic traits and their symptom domains in research and when developing population-based depression prevention and intervention strategies.
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) pose a significant global health threat.
To conduct a systematic review of health outcomes and long-term sequelae attributable to CPE infection.
We followed PRISMA reporting guidelines and published our review protocol on PROSPERO (CRD42018097357). We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. We included primary studies with a carbapenem-susceptible control group in high-income countries, published in English. Quality appraisal was completed using Joanna Briggs Institute checklists. We qualitatively summarized frequently reported outcomes and conducted a meta-analysis.
Our systematic review identified 8,671 studies; 17 met the eligibility criteria for inclusion. All studies reported health outcomes; none reported health-related quality-of-life. Most studies were from Europe (65%), were conducted in teaching or university-affiliated hospitals (76%), and used case-control designs (53%). Mortality was the most commonly reported consequence of CPE-infections; in-hospital mortality was most often reported (62%). Our meta-analysis (n = 5 studies) estimated an absolute risk difference (ARD) for in-hospital bloodstream infection mortality of 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–0.32). Duration of antibiotic therapy (range, 4–29.7 vs 1–23.6 days) and length of hospital stay (range, 21–87 vs 15–43 days) were relatively higher for CPE-infected patients than for patients infected with carbapenem-susceptible pathogens. Most studies (82%) met >80% of their respective quality appraisal criteria.
The risk of in-hospital mortality due to CPE bloodstream infection is considerably greater than carbapenem-susceptible bloodstream infection (ARD, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.17–0.32). Health outcome studies associated with CPE infection are focused on short-term (eg, in-hospital) outcomes; long-term sequelae and quality-of-life are not well studied.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Here we present the synthesis of porous platinum–palladium macrobeams templated from high aspect ratio Magnus’ salt needle derivatives. The combination of [PtCl4]2− and/or [PdCl4]2− with [Pt(NH3)4]2+ ions results in salt needles ranging from 15 to 300 µm in length. Electrochemical reduction of the salt templates results in porous macrobeams with a square cross-section. Porous side wall texture and elemental composition was controlled with initial platinum to palladium salt ratio. Macrobeam free-standing films exhibited a specific capacitance up to 11.73 F/g and a solvent accessible surface area of 26.6 m2/g. These salt-templated porous platinum–palladium macrobeams offer a promising material for fuel cell catalysis.
How do people answer polar questions? In this fourteen-language study of answers to questions in conversation, we compare the two main strategies; first, interjection-type answers such as uh-huh (or equivalents yes, mm, head nods, etc.), and second, repetition-type answers that repeat some or all of the question. We find that all languages offer both options, but that there is a strong asymmetry in their frequency of use, with a global preference for interjection-type answers. We propose that this preference is motivated by the fact that the two options are not equivalent in meaning. We argue that interjection-type answers are intrinsically suited to be the pragmatically unmarked, and thus more frequent, strategy for confirming polar questions, regardless of the language spoken. Our analysis is based on the semantic-pragmatic profile of the interjection-type and repetition-type answer strategies, in the context of certain asymmetries inherent to the dialogic speech act structure of question–answer sequences, including sequential agency and thematic agency. This allows us to see possible explanations for the outlier distributions found in ǂĀkhoe Haiǁom and Tzeltal.
We investigate the onset of three-dimensional hydrothermal waves in a low-capillary-number liquid layer of arbitrary depth, bounded by a free liquid–gas interface from above and a partial slip, rigid surface from below. A selection of two- and three-dimensional hydrothermal waves, longitudinal rolls and longitudinal travelling waves, form the preferred mode of instability, which depends intricately on the magnitude of the basal slip. Partial slip is destabilizing for all modes of instability. Specifically, the minimal Marangoni number required for the onset of instability follows
for each mode, where
is the slip parameter. In the limit of free slip, longitudinal travelling waves disappear in favour of longitudinal rolls. With increasing slip, it is common for two-dimensional hydrothermal waves to exchange stability in favour of longitudinal rolls and oblique hydrothermal waves. Two types of oblique hydrothermal waves appear under partial slip, which exchange stability with increasing slip. The oblique mode that is preferred under no slip persists and remains near longitudinal for small slip parameters.