To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Risperidone the first atypical antipsychotic available in a long-acting injection formulation. In the United Kingdom is licensed to use in psychosis in patients tolerant of oral Risperidone and the Summary of Product Characteristics clearly defines the methods of initiation and titration.
We performed a naturalistic observation of 25 patients belonging to 3 different community mental health teams and one in-patient facility that have been prescribed Risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) and collected data about immediate prior use of antipsychotic medication, patient preference, compliance with treatment, documentation of effectiveness and tolerance of Risperidone oral, supplementation with Risperidone oral during the first three weeks, initial dose, intervals between dose changes, monitoring of benefits and side-effects, and reasons for discontinuation.
Only 7/25 patients have been prescribed oral Risperidone prior to the injectable formulation and none had received clozapine. 13/25 received oral supplementation during initiation, 3/25 dose was changed in less than 4 weeks intervals. 14/25 non-compliance was suspected and only 2/25 patients stated a preference for an injectable formulation. 17/25 continued to receive RLAI and those discontinued in 3/25 due to patient refusal, 1/25 not tolerated, 1/25 patient did not attend treatment, 1/25 not effective, 1/25 patient deceased, 1/25 no reason was specified.
prescribing of RLAI did not follow the recommendation from the manufacturers mainly during initiation. Non-compliance with previous medication was the main reason for use of an injectable formulation but use of RLAI seems to be associated with low discontinuation rates.
Risperidone is the first atypical antipsychotic available in a long-acting injection formulation. in United Kingdom, it is licensed for use in treatment of psychosis in patients tolerant of oral Risperidone. the Summary of Product Characteristics clearly defines the methods of initiation and titration.
We performed a naturalistic observational study of 61 patients suffering with psychosis. the cohort comprised patients being prescribed Risperidone long-acting Injection (RLAI) within various Community Mental Health Teams and Assertive Outreach Team of the Trust. the data was collected related to three broad areas: reasons for choice of RLAI, initiation and titration of RLAI, continuation of RLAI.
• 35/61 patients have been prescribed oral atypical antipsychotic (including 16/61 being prescribed oral Risperidone) prior to the injectable formulation and 3/61 had received Clozapine.
• In 12/61 non-compliance was suspected and only 11/25 patients stated a preference for an injectable formulation.
• 33/61 received oral supplementation during initiation.
• 29/61 were initiated on dose of RLAI commensurate with the current dose of oral Risperidone
• In 35/61, dose was changed in less than 4 weeks intervals.
• 43/61 continued to receive RLAI. 18/61 discontinued due to patient refusal (6/18), patient not tolerated (3/18), not effective (2/18), patient non-attendance (1/18), patient moved area (1/18), other reasons (2/18), no reasons specified (3/18).
Prescribing of RLAI did not follow recommendation from manufacturers during initiation and titration. Non-Compliance with previous medication was main reason for use of RLAI. However, discontinuation with RLAI was primarily related to refusal/intolerance of treatment.
In the UK, mental illness is a major source of disease burden costing in the region of £105 billion pounds. mHealth is a novel and emerging field in psychiatric and psychological care for the treatment of mental health difficulties such as psychosis.
To develop an intelligent real-time therapy (iRTT) mobile intervention (TechCare) which assesses participant's symptoms in real-time and responds with a personalised self-help based psychological intervention, with the aim of reducing participant's symptoms. The system will utilise intelligence at two levels:
– intelligently increasing the frequency of assessment notifications if low mood/paranoia is detected;
– an intelligent machine learning algorithm which provides interventions in real-time and also provides recommendations on the most popular selected interventions.
The aim of the current project is to develop a mobile phone intervention for people with psychosis, and to conduct a feasibility study of the TechCare App.
The study consists of both qualitative and quantitative components. The study will be run across three strands:
– qualitative work;
– test run and intervention refinement;
– feasibility trial.
Preliminary analysis of qualitative data from Strand 2 (test run and intervention refinement) in-depth interviews with service users (n = 2) and focus group with health professionals (n = 1), highlighted main themes around security of the device, multimedia and the acceptability of psychological interventions being delivered via the TechCare App.
Research in this area can be potentially helpful in addressing the demand on mental health services globally, particularly improving access to psychological interventions.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The early intervention service (EIS) approach is based on therapeutic interactions, which promote service user recovery from first episode psychosis. Collaborative therapeutic work between the service user and case manager depends on good communication. This can be a challenge for people with psychosis as the process of thought can be disrupted or stimulus misinterpreted leading to communication errors.
The objective is to develop an interactive tool that can assist service user's communication of distress, whilst employing a psychoeducational approach to the use of an informal therapeutic measurement scale; subjective units of distress (SUDs) and early warning signs (EWS). The ApTiC mobile intervention will include ten numerically graded emoticons from low to extreme distress. Each emoticon is associated with specific individualised service user descriptors and linked to an individually agreed action plan and level of response to be offered by a staff member.
The aim of the present study will be to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the ApTic mobile intervention in preparation for a larger randomised controlled trial.
Phase one: qualitative research to inform the development of the complimentary tool and mobile app (qualitative). Phase two: a 12-week rater-blinded randomized control trial of ApTiC compared to routine EIS case management (quantitative).
The qualitative data will be presented.
It is expected that once validated, the SUDs based ApTiC will enhance rapport and understanding thus improving the recovery approach to well-being and hopefully preventing relapse or the involvement of the crisis team or hospital admissions.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Quality improvement and patient safety (QIPS) competencies are increasingly important in emergency medicine (EM) and are now included in the CanMEDS framework. We conducted a survey aimed at determining the Canadian EM residents’ perspectives on the level of QIPS education and support available to them.
An electronic survey was distributed to all Canadian EM residents from the Royal College and Family Medicine training streams. The survey consisted of multiple-choice, Likert, and free-text entry questions aimed at understanding familiarity with QIPS, local opportunities for QIPS projects and mentorship, and the desire for further QIPS education and involvement.
Of 535 EM residents, 189 (35.3%) completed the survey, representing all 17 medical schools; 77.2% of respondents were from the Royal College stream; 17.5% of respondents reported that QIPS methodologies were formally taught in their residency program; 54.7% of respondents reported being “somewhat” or “very” familiar with QIPS; 47.2% and 51.5% of respondents reported either “not knowing” or “not having readily available” opportunities for QIPS projects and QIPS mentorship, respectively; 66.9% of respondents indicated a desire for increased QIPS teaching; and 70.4% were interested in becoming involved with QIPS training and initiatives.
Many Canadian EM residents perceive a lack of QIPS educational opportunities and support in their local setting. They are interested in receiving more QIPS education, as well as project and mentorship opportunities. Supporting residents with a robust QIPS educational and mentorship framework may build a cohort of providers who can enhance the local delivery of care.
Despite the magnitude and protracted nature of the Rohingya refugee situation, there is limited information on the culture, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of this group. This paper, drawing on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Rohingya refugees, including an examination of associated cultural factors. The ultimate objective is to assist humanitarian actors and agencies in providing culturally relevant Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) for Rohingya refugees displaced to Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries.
We conducted a systematic search across multiple sources of information with reference to the contextual, social, economic, cultural, mental health and health-related factors amongst Rohingya refugees living in the Asia-Pacific and other regions. The search covered online databases of diverse disciplines (e.g. medicine, psychology, anthropology), grey literature, as well as unpublished reports from non-profit organisations and United Nations agencies published until 2018.
The legacy of prolonged exposure to conflict and persecution compounded by protracted conditions of deprivations and displacement is likely to increase the refugees' vulnerability to wide array of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. High rates of sexual and gender-based violence, lack of privacy and safe spaces and limited access to integrated psychosocial and mental health support remain issues of concern within the emergency operation in Bangladesh. Another challenge is the limited understanding amongst the MHPSS personnel in Bangladesh and elsewhere of the language, culture and help-seeking behaviour of Rohingya refugees. While the Rohingya language has a considerable vocabulary for emotional and behavioural problems, there is limited correspondence between these Rohingya terms and western concepts of mental disorders. This hampers the provision of culturally sensitive and contextually relevant MHPSS services to these refugees.
The knowledge about the culture, context, migration history, idioms of distress, help-seeking behaviour and traditional healing methods, obtained from diverse sources can be applied in the design and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Attention to past exposure to traumatic events and losses need to be paired with attention for ongoing stressors and issues related to worries about the future. It is important to design MHPSS interventions in ways that mobilise the individual and collective strengths of Rohingya refugees and build on their resilience.
Objectives: Caregivers of youth with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure report impaired communication, which can significantly impact quality of life. Using data collected as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD), we examined whether cognitive variables predict communication ability of youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods: Subjects (ages 10–16 years) comprised two groups: adolescents with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and non-exposed controls (CON). Selected measures of executive function (NEPSY, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System), working memory (CANTAB), and language were tested in the child, while parents completed communication ratings (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – Second Edition). Separate multiple regression analyses determined which cognitive domains predicted communication ability. A final, global model of communication comprised the three cognitive models. Results: Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition significantly contributed to communication ability across groups. Twenty Questions performance related to communication ability in the CON group only while Word Generation performance related to communication ability in the AE group only. Effects remained significant in the global model, with the exception of Spatial Working Memory. Conclusions: Both groups displayed a relation between communication and Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition. Stronger communication ability related to stronger verbal fluency in the AE group and Twenty Questions performance in the CON group. These findings suggest that alcohol-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on learned verbal storage or fluency for daily communication while non-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on abstract thinking and verbal efficiency. Interventions aimed at aspects of executive function may be most effective at improving communication ability of these individuals. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1026–1037)
The laminar flow over a slender delta wing at incidence has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically using vortex sheet methods. These vortex sheet methods have generally been successful apart from the prediction of the secondary boundary-layer separation induced by the primary vortex. This paper revisits the problem using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and focusses on the effects of the secondary flow separation. The modelling approach is briefly summarised, and the results are compared with flow measurements and results from vortex sheet methods. The computations show very good agreement with measurements for the surface pressures and total head contours. The results help to understand the complex structure of the leading edge vortex flow, and the associated secondary separation of the boundary layer. They indicate that inviscid mechanisms dominate the larger scale features, and highlight a possible mechanism for the development of an instability in the leading edge vortex sheet.
Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C. difficile antigen and toxins were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Stool samples were subsequently analyzed by culture and molecular detection of toxin genes, and PCR ribotyping of isolates. To examine awareness among hospital staff and students, participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. For the hospital and community studies, the prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 16% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of CDI among hospital inpatients with diarrhea was 13%. Out of 22 C. difficile strains from hospital inpatients, the toxigenic ribotypes 043 and 017 were most common (both 14%). In univariate analysis, C. difficile colonization in hospital inpatients was significantly associated with greater duration of hospitalization and use of penicillin (both P < 0·05). Absence of these factors was a possible reason for low colonization in the community. Only 3% of 154 respondents answered all questions correctly in the awareness survey. C. difficile colonization is prevalent in a Malaysian hospital setting but not in the elderly community with little or no contact with hospitals. Awareness of CDI is alarmingly poor.
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.
Prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) result in behavioral issues related to poor executive function (EF). This overlap may hinder clinical identification of alcohol-exposed children. This study examined the relation between parent and neuropsychological measures of EF and whether parent ratings aid in differential diagnosis. Neuropsychological measures of EF, including the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), were administered to four groups of children (8–16 years): alcohol-exposed with ADHD (AE+, n=80), alcohol-exposed without ADHD (AE−, n=36), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=93), and controls (CON, n=167). Primary caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). For parent ratings, multivariate analyses of variance revealed main effects of Exposure and ADHD and an interaction between these factors, with significant differences between all groups on nearly all BRIEF scales. For neuropsychological measures, results indicated main effects of Exposure and ADHD, but no interaction. Discriminant function analysis indicated the BRIEF accurately classifies groups. These findings confirm compounded behavioral, but not neuropsychological, effects in the AE+ group over the other clinical groups. Parent-report was not correlated with neuropsychological performance in the clinical groups and may provide unique information about neurobehavior. Parent-report measures are clinically useful in predicting alcohol exposure regardless of ADHD. Results contribute to a neurobehavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–13)
This paper includes a brief review of the historical and policy background to a new form of supported accommodation, the Individual Care Package (ICP). This is a co-ordinated, individualised and flexible method to support people with complex mental health problems in the community.
The study aimed to describe the implementation of this new form of care in Gloucestershire, England, over a 5-year period. We aimed to audit the quality of care in the packages against six care standards, derived by a project steering group. Staff working in community mental health services and staff providing ICPs were asked to report their levels of satisfaction with care provision.
A total of 35 ICPs were developed, mostly relating to service users with severe mental illness. Only 60% of the community mental health team key workers were aware of the expected level of care. In many cases, service users were accessing support from day services or family alongside the ICP. Four service users were admitted, and four moved accommodation after going into ICPs. Overall, levels of care provided within ICPs tended to remain static. Trust key workers were mostly satisfied with the support provided in ICPs, but a range of concerns were expressed. ICP staff reported mostly positive views about the support that they received from statutory services, but also reported some concerns.
ICPs appeared to be successful in enabling a number of service users with complex difficulties to obtain and maintain tenancies in the community. There were some concerns about the quality of monitoring of the ICPs and some uncertainty about whether ICP staff would have the skills, support and training to promote recovery and increasing independence of service users. There was little evidence of service users moving on or reduction in care over time. There is a need for good inter-agency working for the successful deployment of this new form of service. There is also a need for more research, comparing ICPs with other forms of supported accommodation and considering the service user experience through qualitative research.
We report on experiments aimed at the generation and characterization of solid density plasmas at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg. Aluminum samples were irradiated with XUV pulses at 13.5 nm wavelength (92 eV photon energy). The pulses with duration of a few tens of femtoseconds and pulse energy up to 100 µJ are focused to intensities ranging between 1013 and 1017 W/cm2. We investigate the absorption and temporal evolution of the sample under irradiation by use of XUV and optical spectroscopy. We discuss the origin of saturable absorption, radiative decay, bremsstrahlung and atomic and ionic line emission. Our experimental results are in good agreement with simulations.
An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual–motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ. (JINS, 2011, 17, 463–473)
Cerebral malaria is a life-threatening complication of malaria infection. The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is poorly defined and progress in understanding the condition is severely hampered by the inability to study in detail, ante-mortem, the parasitological and immunological events within the brain that lead to the onset of clinical symptoms. Experimental murine models have been used to investigate the sequence of events that lead to cerebral malaria, but there is significant debate on the merits of these models and whether their study is relevant to human disease. Here we review the current understanding of the parasitological and immunological events leading to human and experimental cerebral malaria, and explain why we believe that studies with experimental models of CM are crucial to define the pathogenesis of the condition.
We are concerned with the behaviour of a two-dimensional jet that issues from a planar orifice, with a ‘top-hat’ profile. At the orifice the steady flow is modulated by a time-harmonic fluctuation. A suitably defined Reynolds number is assumed to be large throughout. At large streamwise distances from the orifice, the time-averaged flow yields the classical, Bickley, jet with a suitable virtual origin. This decays algebraically whilst, by contrast, the unsteady component decays exponentially with streamwise distance. An asymptotic theory confirms the exponential decay and provides a good agreement with the numerical solution.
Children with either fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in attention and executive function (EF) and differential diagnosis of these two clinical groups may be difficult, especially when information about prenatal alcohol exposure is unavailable. The current study compared EF performance of three groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC); nonexposed children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and typically developing controls (CON). Both clinical groups met diagnostic criteria for ADHD. The EF tasks used were the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and the Trail Making Test (TMT). Results indicated different patterns of deficit; both clinical groups displayed deficits on the WCST and a relative weakness on letter versus category fluency. Only the ALC group displayed overall deficits on letter fluency and a relative weakness on TMT-B versus TMT-A. In addition, WCST performance was significantly lower than expected based on IQ in the ADHD group and significantly higher than expected in the ALC group. These results, which indicate that, although EF deficits occurred in both clinical groups, the degree and pattern of deficit differed between the ALC and ADHD groups, may improve differential diagnosis. (JINS, 2008, 14, 119–129.)
Objectives: To demonstrate a potentially life-threatening complication following tonsillectomy in a diabetic patient and discuss the possible pathogenesis.
Methods: Case report and review of the world literature concerning parapharyngeal abscess post-tonsillectomy.
Case report: A 20-year-old female patient underwent an uneventful tonsillectomy following a history of recurrent tonsillitis. She re-presented 14 days post-surgery with a large erythematous tender right mid cervical neck swelling. Clinical and radiological evaluation confirmed a parapharyngeal abscess. She proceeded to have an incision and drainage of the abscess through a horizontal skin crease incision and subsequent intravenous antibiotic therapy. She was discharged home well three days post-surgery.
Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is a well-recognised systemic disease that may leave an individual more susceptible to infection. We report the first case in a young healthy diabetic patient and highlight a potential serious complication following a routine tonsillectomy.