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Families facing end-stage nonmalignant chronic diseases (NMCDs) are presented with similar symptom burdens and need for psycho-social–spiritual support as their counterparts with advanced cancers. However, NMCD patients tend to face more variable disease trajectories, and thus may require different anticipatory supports, delivered in familiar environments. The Life Rainbow Programme (LRP) provides holistic, transdisciplinary, community-based end-of-life care for patients with NMCDs and their caregivers. This paper reports on the 3-month outcomes using a single-group, pre–post comparison.
Patients with end-stage NMCDs were screened for eligibility by a medical team before being referred to the LRP. Patients were assessed at baseline (T0), 1 month (T1), and 3 months (T2) using the Integrated Palliative Outcome Scale (IPOS). Their hospital use in the previous month was also measured by presentations at accident and emergency services, admissions to intensive care units, and number of hospital bed-days. Caregivers were assessed at T0 and T2 using the Chinese version of the Modified Caregiver Strain Index, and self-reported health, psychological, spiritual, and overall well-being. Over-time changes in outcomes for patients, and caregivers, were tested using paired-sample t-tests, Wilcoxon-signed rank tests, and chi-square tests.
Seventy-four patients and 36 caregivers participated in this research study. Patients reported significant improvements in all IPOS domains at both 1 and 3 months [ranging from Cohen's d = 0.495 (nausea) to 1.793 (depression and information needs fulfilled)]. Average hospital bed-days in the previous month fell from 3.50 to 1.68, comparing baseline and 1 month (p < 0.05). At 3 months, caregiver strain was significantly reduced (r = 0.332), while spiritual well-being was enhanced (r = 0.333).
After receiving 3 month's LRP services, patients with end-stage NMCDs and their caregivers experienced significant improvements in the quality of life and well-being, and their hospital bed-days were reduced.
Understanding risk factors for death from Covid-19 is key to providing good quality clinical care. We assessed the presenting characteristics of the ‘first wave’ of patients with Covid-19 at Royal Oldham Hospital, UK and undertook logistic regression modelling to investigate factors associated with death. Of 470 patients admitted, 169 (36%) died. The median age was 71 years (interquartile range 57–82), and 255 (54.3%) were men. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (n = 218, 46.4%), diabetes (n = 143, 30.4%) and chronic neurological disease (n = 123, 26.1%). The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury (AKI) (n = 157, 33.4%) and myocardial injury (n = 21, 4.5%). Forty-three (9.1%) patients required intubation and ventilation, and 39 (8.3%) received non-invasive ventilation. Independent risk factors for death were increasing age (odds ratio (OR) per 10 year increase above 40 years 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57–2.27), hypertension (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.10–2.70), cancer (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.27–3.81), platelets <150 × 103/μl (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.13–3.30), C-reactive protein ≥100 μg/ml (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.05–2.68), >50% chest radiograph infiltrates (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.16–3.77) and AKI (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.64–4.13). There was no independent association between death and gender, ethnicity, deprivation level, fever, SpO2/FiO2, lymphopoenia or other comorbidities. These findings will inform clinical and shared decision making, including use of respiratory support and therapeutic agents.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Identifying the burden of care on relatives of the mentally ill remains an integral part of research in community psychiatric services. The present study aimed to assess the level and extent of burden on relatives in South Verona (northeast Italy). The South Verona catchment area provides a comprehensive, community-based psychiatric service with minimal reliance on the hospital. Patients were selected from the South Verona Psychiatric Case Register and 40 of their relatives were interviewed using structured assessments measuring objective burden, patient behaviour, coping strategies, satisfaction and needs for services. Both positive and negative aspects of burden were apparent, 92% of relatives continued to maintain contact with friends/relatives, 72% had no change to their family income, and 52% could manage any household disruptions during a crisis. The main negative effects for relatives included reduced leisure activities (57%) and psychological problems (67%). The greatest burden was on relatives of patients who were male (P = 0.016), unemployed (P = 0.013) and diagnosed with psychosis (P = 0.041). The implications of employment for patients and its association with lower levels of caregiver burden are discussed.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
An unexpected increase in gastroenteritis cases was reported by healthcare workers on the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa, January 2017 with >600 cases seen over a 3-week period. A case–control study was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the outbreak so as to recommend control and prevention measures. Record review identified cases and controls and structured-telephonic interviews were conducted to obtain exposure history. Stool specimens were collected from 20 cases along with environmental samples and both screened for enteric pathogens. A total of 126 cases and 62 controls were included in the analysis. The odds of developing gastroenteritis were 6.0 times greater among holiday makers than residents (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–17.7). Swimming in the lagoon increased the odds of developing gastroenteritis by 3.3 times (95% CI 1.06–10.38). Lagoon water samples tested positive for norovirus (NoV) GI.6, GII.3 and GII.6, astrovirus and rotavirus. Eleven (55%) stool specimens were positive for NoV with eight genotyped as GI.1 (n = 2), GI.5 (n = 3), GI.6 (n = 2), and GI.7 (n = 1). A reported sewage contamination event impacting the lagoon was the likely source with person-to-person spread perpetuating the outbreak. Restriction to swimming in the lagoon was apparently ineffective at preventing the outbreak, possibly due to inadequate enforcement, communication and signage strategies.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
We examined the insecticidal activity of linalool and thymol, against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), and whether they would synergise the activity of spinosad against this pest. Both linalool and thymol were toxic to diamondback moth larvae by topical and oral exposure, but orders of magnitude less so than spinosad. We found that low concentrations of linalool weakly synergised spinosad, increasing its toxicity more than twofold. An interaction between spinosad, and acetone meant it was not possible to identify any potential synergisms between thymol and spinosad. Our results demonstrate limited potential for thymol and linalool to act as biopesticides or synergists for managing diamondback moth.
Over the past five years transgender children and their parents have emerged as visible actors in public discussions about the rights of transgender people in Canada. In this article, I track the work of emotions in parent advocacy, showing how the enactment of filial (family) ties sheds new light on the gendered relationship between intimacy and political practice. I argue that an affective shift in parenting has opened up space for some cisgender parents to emerge as political actors in trans advocacy work. The affective politics of parent advocacy nonetheless operates through dominant frames of gendered, classed and racialized normativity, limiting both who can become a parent advocate and potentially narrowing the focus of the struggle.
Public health interest in norovirus (NoV) has increased in recent years following improved diagnostics, global burden estimates and the development of NoV vaccine candidates. This study aimed to describe the detection rate, clinical characteristics and environmental features associated with NoV detection in hospitalized children <5 years with diarrhoea in South Africa (SA). Between 2009 and 2013, prospective diarrhoeal surveillance was conducted at four sites in SA. Stool specimens were collected and screened for NoVs and other enteric pathogens using molecular and serological assays. Epidemiological and clinical data were compared in patients with or without detection of NoV. The study detected NoV in 15% (452/3103) of hospitalized children <5 years with diarrhoea with the majority of disease in children <2 years (92%; 417/452). NoV-positive children were more likely to present with diarrhoea and vomiting (odds ratio (OR) 1·3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1–1·7; P = 0·011) with none-to-mild dehydration (adjusted OR 0·5; 95% CI 0·3–0·7) compared with NoV-negative children. Amongst children testing NoV positive, HIV-infected children were more likely to have prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality compared with HIV-uninfected children. Continued surveillance will be important to consider the epidemic trends and estimate the burden and risk of NoV infection in SA.
Preliminary stable oxygen isotope data are presented from the southern North Sea Basin successions, ranging from the Lutetian to Rupelian. Analyses were performed on fish otoliths, nuculid bivalves and benthic foraminifera and are presented as bulk δ18O values relative to a well established regional sequence stratigraphic framework. The most significant positive shift in δ18O values clearly falls at the top of the regionally recognised Bassevelde 3 sequence, which base corresponds to the Eocene-Oligocene GSSP boundary. The here documented δ18O shift is closely associated with the base of the traditional Rupelian unit-stratotype and is tentatively correlated to the globally recognised Oi-1 event.
From 2009 to 2013 the diversity of noroviruses (NoVs) in children (⩽5 years) hospitalized with gastroenteritis in South Africa was investigated. NoVs were genotyped based on nucleotide sequence analyses of partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid genes. Seventeen RdRp genotypes (GI.P2, GI.P3, GI.P6, GI.P7, GI.P not assigned (NA), GI.Pb, GI.Pf, GII.P2, GII.P4, GII.P7, GII.P13, GII.P16, GII.P21, GII.Pc, GII.Pe, GII.Pg, GII.PNA) and 20 capsid genotypes (GI.1, GI.2, GI.3, GI.5, GI.6, GI.7, GI.NA, GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.10, GII.12, GII.13, GII.14, GII.16, GII.17, GII.21) were identified. The combined RdRp/capsid genotype was determined for 275 GII strains. Fifteen confirmed recombinant NoV strains circulated during the study period. NoV GII.P4/GII.4 (47%) and GII.Pe/GII.4 (18%) predominated, followed by GII.PNA/GII.3 (10%) and GII.P21/GII.3 (7%). Other prevalent strains included GII.Pg/GII.12 (6%) and GII.Pg/GII.1 (3%). Two novel recombinants, GII.Pg/GII.2 and GII.Pg/GII.10 were identified. In 2013 the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans 2009 and GII.P21/GII.3, which predominated during the early part of the study, with GII.4 Sydney 2012 and GII.PNA/GII.3 was observed. This study presents the most comprehensive recent data on NoV diversity in Africa.
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is a label-free biosensing technique employing plasmonic nanostructures to detect local refractive index change induced by biomolecules in the vicinity of these nanostructures. In analogy to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor in a cuvette, LSPR is resistant to bulk refractive index fluctuation yet remains comparably sensitive for biosensing purpose. LSPR has the advantage over SPR in that the overall system size is smaller, and not affected by normal temperature fluctuations during measurement. However, mass production of a cheap but effective LSPR substrate remains challenging. In this paper, a self-assembly gold nanoisland structure was synthesized on transparent glass substrate by a simple two-step deposition-growth process. The first step involved depositing an ultra thin film of gold with nominal thickness of 5 nm by thermal evaporation at 1× 10-7 torr. Then the gold coated substrate was placed into a high temperature oven and annealed at 450°C for 10 hours. By first observation, the annealed substrate turned from pale green to dark pink. Upon scanning with atomic force microscopy, it was revealed that nanoislands of about 100 nm to 150 nm wide with average height of 60 nm were formed. Optical extinction measurements showed that the absorption peak was about 560 nm with fullwidth-half-maximum of 100 nm, so dark pink color was observed. For the biosensing demonstration, Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Anti-BSA bio-affinity interaction was measured using the self-assembly gold nanoisland LSPR sensor. Anti-BSA was functionalized onto the sensing site and BSA of known concentrations, i.e. 1 ug/ml was injected. The results showed LSPR spectral intensity change of 650 counts at the resonance slope of 634 nm. With standard deviation of spectral intensity fluctuation at 7 counts, the detection limit of BSA was estimated at about 0.5 nM which was comparable with that of LSPR systems with more elaborate nanostructures. The limit of detection of the present system can be further improved by implementing phase measurement and further nanostructure improvement.
Propagation of nonlinear baroclinic Kelvin waves in a rotating column of uniformly
stratified fluid under the Boussinesq approximation is investigated. The model is
constrained by the Kelvin’s conjecture saying that the velocity component normal to the
interface between rotating fluid and surrounding medium (e.g. a seashore) is possibly zero
everywhere in the domain of fluid motion, not only at the boundary. Three classes of
distinctly different exact solutions for the nonlinear model are obtained. The obtained
solutions are associated with symmetries of the Boussinesq model. It is shown that one
class of the obtained solutions can be visualized as rotating whirlpools along which the
pressure deviation from the mean state is zero, is positive inside and negative outside of
the whirlpools. The angular velocity is zero at the center of the whirlpools and it is
monotonically increasing function of radius of the whirlpools.
We derive the conserved vectors for the nonlinear two-dimensional Euler equations
describing nonviscous incompressible fluid flows on a three-dimensional rotating spherical
surface superimposed by a particular stationary latitude dependent flow. Under the
assumption of no friction and a distribution of temperature dependent only upon latitude,
the equations in question can be used to model zonal west-to-east flows in the upper
atmosphere between the Ferrel and Polar cells. As a particualr example, the conserved
densities are analyzed by visualizing the exact invariant solutions associated with the
given model for the particular form of finite disturbances for which the invariant
solutions are also exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equations.