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This contribution reports on the biosynthesis of nickel oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs & ZnO-NPs) via a natural extract from Moringa Oleifera leaves as an effective chelating and/or oxidizing/reduction agent of nickel nitrate hexahydrate and zinc nitrate hexahydrate. The structural and optical properties of these two types of semiconductors obtained in a similar procedure are investigated using X-rays Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR), diffuse reflectance UV-Visible-NIR and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The structural analysis shows the formation of pure cubic NiO-NPs and pure wurtzite ZnO-NPs with an average crystallite size of 17.80 nm and 10.81 nm respectively. Their band gaps, calculated from the diffuse reflectance analysis were found to be 4.28 eV and 3.35 eV respectively.
The 2017 plague outbreak in Madagascar was unprecedented in the African region, resulting in 2417 cases (498 confirmed, 793 probable and 1126 suspected) and 209 deaths by the end of the acute urban pneumonic phase of the outbreak. The Health Emergencies Programme of the WHO Regional Office for Africa together with the WHO Country Office and WHO Headquarters assisted the Ministry of Public Health of Madagascar in the rapid implementation of plague prevention and control measures while collecting and analysing quantitative and qualitative data to inform immediate interventions. We document the key findings of the evidence available to date and actions taken as a result. Based on the four goals of operational research – effective dissemination of results, peer-reviewed publication, changes to policy and practice and improvements in programme performance and health – we evaluate the use of evidence to inform response to the outbreak and describe lessons learned for future outbreak responses in the WHO African region. This article may not be reprinted or reused in any way in order to promote any commercial products or services.
This work reports on the synthesis and the main physical and chemical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an entirely green Bio-physical-chemical process using natural dye extract from Adansonia digitata leaves as an efficient reduction/oxidizing agent. Their structural and surfaces properties by electron microscopy, X-rays diffraction, Raman and TGA, as well as gas adsorption analysis are reported.
We examined the association between a history of smallpox vaccination and immune activation (IA) in a population of antiretroviral therapy-naïve people living with HIV (PLHIV). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Senegal from July 2015 to March 2017. Smallpox vaccination was ascertained by the presence of smallpox vaccine scar and IA by the plasma level of β-2-microglobulin (β2m). The association was analysed using logistic regression and linear regression models. The study population comprised 101 PLHIV born before 1980 with a median age of 47 years (interquartile range (IQR) = 42–55); 57·4% were women. Smallpox vaccine scar was present in 65·3% and the median β2m level was 2·59 mg/l (IQR = 2·06–3·86). After adjustment, the presence of smallpox vaccine scar was not associated with a β2m level ⩾2·59 mg/l (adjusted odds ratio 0·94; 95% confidence interval 0·32–2·77). This result was confirmed by the linear regression model. Our study does not find any association between the presence of smallpox vaccine scar and the β2m level and does not support any association between a previous smallpox vaccination and HIV disease progression. In this study, IA is not a significant determinant of the reported non-targeted effect of smallpox vaccination in PLHIV.
The 9th meeting of the African Society of Human Genetics, in partnership with the Senegalese Cancer Research and Study Group and the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, was held in Dakar, Senegal. The theme was Strengthening Human Genetics Research in Africa. The 210 delegates came from 21 African countries and from France, Switzerland, UK, UAE, Canada and the USA. The goal was to highlight genetic and genomic science across the African continent with the ultimate goal of improving the health of Africans and those across the globe, and to promote the careers of young African scientists in the field. A session on the sustainability of genomic research in Africa brought to light innovative and practical approaches to supporting research in resource-limited settings and the importance of promoting genetics in academic, research funding, governmental and private sectors. This meeting led to the formation of the Senegalese Society for Human Genetics.
ZnO nanorods arrays were prepared on soda lime glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. Hexagonal rod-like ZnO rods were obtained under different conditions. Well-defined ZnO nanorods arrays were selected among different samples having various morphologies and sizes already studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Here, we report on the contact angle measurement (CAM) of one of these samples. A systematic change of the surface wettability is observed in W-doped ZnO nanostructures. The water contact angle (WCA) of a 1 wt.% of WO3 target content was found to be the transition doping level from hydrophilic surface to a hydrophobic surface. We attributed the transition in surface wettability of the film with the doping to incorporation increase of tungsten into the film. Such characteristic surface wettability can play a key role in the adhesion of various layers on W-ZnO nanorods arrays for optoelectronic device applications.
In 2005, a serological study was carried out on horses in five ecologically contrasted zones of the Senegal River basin (Senegal) to assess West Nile virus (WNV) transmission and investigate underlying environmental risk factors. In each study zone, horses were randomly selected and blood samples taken. A land-cover map of the five study areas was built using two satellite ETM+ images. Blood samples were screened by ELISA for anti-WNV IgM and IgG and positive samples were confirmed by seroneutralization. Environmental data were analysed using a principal components analysis. The overall IgG seroprevalence rate was 85% (n=367; 95% CI 0·81–0·89). The proximity to sea water, flooded banks and salted mudflats were identified as protective factors. These environmental components are unfavourable to the presence of Culex mosquitoes suggesting that in Senegal, the distribution of the vector species is more limiting for WNV transmission than for the hosts' distribution.
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