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Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O111 and O157 occurred in Japan in April 2011. We conducted an unmatched case-control study and trace-back investigation to determine the source of EHEC O111 infection and risk factors for severe complications. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to help define cases. A total of 86 individuals met the case definition. Of these, 40% experienced haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), 24% acute encephalopathy, and 6% died. Illness was significantly associated with eating the raw beef dish yukhoe (odds ratio 19·64, 95% confidence interval 7·03–54·83), the likely food vehicle. EHEC O111 and its closely related stx-negative variants were found in the beef. HUS occurred most frequently in individuals aged 5–9 years, and this age group was significantly associated with acute encephalopathy. The prevalence of HUS and acute encephalopathy was higher than in previous non-O157-related outbreaks, indicating a high risk of severe complications.
Eimeria tenella is recognized worldwide as a significant pathogen in the poultry industry. However, a lack of methods for isolating developing schizonts has hindered the use of transcriptome analyses to discover novel and developmentally regulated genes. In the present study, we characterized the long-term successive development of E. tenella in infected chicken caeca and assessed the utility of laser microdissection (LMD) for the isolation of schizont RNA. Developmental stages, including those of the first, second, and third-generation schizonts and gametocytes, were synchronous. Using LMD, only the mature second-generation schizonts were successfully excised from the lamina propria, and non-degraded RNA was purified from the schizonts. E. tenella-specific genes were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These results augment our understanding of the E. tenella life cycle, and reveal LMD as a potentially useful tool for gene expression analyses of the intracellular stages of E. tenella.
Metal abundances of the hot X-ray emitting interstellar medium (ISM) include important information to understand the history of star formation and evolution of galaxies. The metals are mainly synthesized by Type Ia (SNe Ia) and stellar mass loss in elliptical galaxies. The productions of stellar mass loss reflect stellar metallicity. SNe Ia mainly product Fe. Therefore, the abundance pattern of ISM can play key role to investigate the metal enrichment history.
The aim of this paper is to review the current status of poultry production and its future prospects in Bangladesh, covering both rural and commercial poultry production. As an important sub-sector of livestock production, the poultry industry in Bangladesh plays a crucial role in economic growth and simultaneously creates numerous employment opportunities. The poultry industry, as a fundamental part of animal production, is committed to supplying the nation with a cheap source of good quality nutritious animal protein in terms of meat and eggs. Two main systems of poultry production are common in Bangladesh nowadays: commercial poultry production – where birds are kept in total confinement, and traditional scavenging or semi-scavenging poultry production. Approximately 20% of the protein consumed in Bangladesh originates from poultry. With the exception the dip in production due to the recent Avian Influenza outbreak, the growth of this industry in terms of standards of commercialization, is very rapid. A gap still exists between the requirement and supply of poultry meat and eggs within the recent frame-work of the informal marketing system that is currently used. Among poultry species, the chicken population is dominant over others, at almost 90%, followed by ducks (8%) and a small number of quail, pigeons and geese. Free range ‘backyard’ and scavenging poultry, that are traditionally reared by rural women and children, still play an important role in generating family income, in addition to improving the family's diet with eggs and meat. Productive and reproductive performance of indigenous birds is relatively very low (35-40 eggs and 1-1.5 kg meat per bird per year), but genetic improvements by selective breeding, along with adequate nutrition and proper management, looks promising and quite possible. Commercial poultry production in Bangladesh, is conducted on an industrial scale and is growing tremendously in spite of recent difficulties but is expected to make a significant contribution to the economic development of the country. A national poultry policy is expected to be approved by the government shortly, which, when implemented, will improve the organization of production and marketing, allowing increased stability and security of output throughout the year. In addition, efforts should be taken to ensure safety standards of poultry meat and eggs for human consumption. Experts from the government, research institutes, universities, NGOs and other relevant sectors need to work in a collaborative manner in order to allow sustainable production and fight challenges jointly when they appear from time to time. Corresponding attention to research and development will allow the poultry sector to flourish in Bangladesh. As government funding is limited, industrialists need to come forward either to establish their respective research facilities or to provide funds to universities and research institutes in order to undertake research works of national and international importance.
We surveyed emm genotypes of group A streptococcus (GAS) isolates from patients with severe invasive streptococcal infections during 2001–2005 and compared their prevalence with that of the preceding 5 years. Genotype emm1 remained dominant throughout 2001 to 2005, but the frequency rate of this type decreased compared with the earlier period. Various other emm types have appeared in recent years indicating alterations in the prevalent strains causing severe invasive streptococcal infections. The cover of the new 26-valent GAS vaccine fell from 93·5% for genotypes of isolates from 1996–2000 to 81·8% in 2001–2005.
We surveyed T serotypes and emm genotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS) patients. T1 (emm1) remained dominant through 1992 to 2000, but the dominant T3 (emm3.1) strains from 1992 to 1995 disappeared during 1996–2000. Strains of several emm genotypes emerged during 1996–2000, indicating alterations in the prevalent strains causing TSLS.
The initial solidification in the continuous casting process can be controlled by imposing a pulsative AC
electromagnetic field on the meniscus. The casting experiment of a steel billet has been conducted by
using a commercial billet caster. The imposition of a pulsative AC electromagnetic field has greatly
improved the surface qualities. This presentation provides the results of the electromagnetic casting
project of JRCM which is supported financially by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of
An understanding of the biology of the cuticle in the larval stages of Ascariodea is of importance since the cuticle molecules not only possess a variety of functions related to survival but also have a potential role as a target for immunoprophylaxis. Thus, we made a preliminary characterization of surface proteins and antigens from 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and lung-stage larvae of Ascaris suum using two biotin-derivatives and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D–PAGE). The proteins labelled with biotin comprised a total of 37 and 32 spots, with molecular weights (Mr) ranging from 15 to 101kDa and isoelectric points (pI) from 3·8 to 7·6, in L3 and lung-stage larvae, respectively. The profiles revealed that the individual spots bound to one or both biotin derivatives. In addition, stage-common and stage-specific spots were found in L3 and lung-stage larvae. 2D–PAGE/immunoblotting analysis was performed with antisera from rabbits repeatedly inoculated with A. suum L3. Nineteen spots were recognized as surface antigens, with Mr ranging from 32 to 66kDa and pI from 4·9 to 7·6, from L3 and lung-stage larvae after alignment of the immunoblots with the profile of the surface proteins. These spots were found to include stage-common and stage-specific antigens. Identification of surface proteins by biotin labelling combined with 2D–PAGE allows a substantial shortening of sample preparation time for the target proteins, and will be a viable method for protein analysis of surface proteins and antigens of A. suum L3 and lung-stage larvae.
We have detected 8,968 ultraviolet-excess galaxies in a sky area of some 5,100 square degrees by means of the UGR three-image photographs with the 105 cm Kiso Schmidt, giving a number density of 1.8 per square degree. A net count of the objects is 8,162, deleting those which appear repeatedly in the neighbouring survey area. For each of these galaxies which we call KUGs, data including morphological type and UV-excess degree are listed in a catalogue series of 18 volumes. Some statistics of these KUGs are also given in the last volume.
The migration behavior of uranium series nuclides in an altered quartz-chlorite schist has been studied by utilizing data on the activity distributions of uranium series nuclides at Koongarra in the Northern Territory of Australia. The variation of 230Th/234U activity ratios (ARs) with distance along surface (2 m depth), intermediate (16 m) and deep (31 m) layers show different trends in the three layers parallel to the water flow. The relationship between the 234U/238U and 230Th/238U ARs reveals that the mobility of the uranium series nuclides is in order 238U, 234U and 230Th, and that the retardation factors oft 234U are greater than those of 238U by a factor of 1.1, 1.9 and 1.0 in the surface, intermediate and deep layers, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns show different mineral assemblages, which are the alteration products of chlorite at the three layers. These results imply that the migration behavior of uranium series nuclides at each depth would be related to the alteration of chlorite.
We have detected 3, 141 ultraviolet-excess galaxies in the sky area of some 1,500 square degrees by means of the UGR three-image photographs taken with the 105-cm Kiso Schmidt. For each of these galaxies which we call KUGs the morphological type and the degree of ultraviolet-excess are given in the catalogues. The frequency distribution for these characteristics of KUGs is shown in a form of histogram. The results of a spectroscopic study for the 57 selected KUGs are that 85% of the sample have emission-lines and most of them are situated in the domain of HII regions on the emission-line ratio diagram.
A balloon observation of the F-corona in visual and infrared regions was carried out by Japanese and Indonesian teams at the total solar eclipse on June 11, 1983, in Java, Indonesia. For the visual observation, a SIT television camera, with 4 interference filters (5300Å, 6000Å, 7200Å and 8000Å) and a 45°-step rotating polarizer, was used. The camera measured brightness distributions in a sky area of 5°×5° centered at the eclipsed sun at each polarizer position for each filter. In this paper, a part of results, which are the brightness and polarization distributions in a half area of the 6000Å picture, is shown.
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