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This review assesses regenerative medicine of the upper aerodigestive tract during the first two decades of the twenty-first century, focusing on end-stage fibrosis and tissue loss in the upper airways, salivary system, oropharynx and tongue.
PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Medline and clinicaltrials.org were searched from 2000 to 2019. The keywords used were: bioengineering, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, cell therapy, regenerative surgery, upper aerodigestive tract, pharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, vocal cord, tongue and salivary glands. Original studies were subcategorised by anatomical region. Original human reports were further analysed. Articles on periodontology, ear, nose and maxillofacial disorders, and cancer immunotherapy were excluded.
Of 716 relevant publications, 471 were original studies. There were 18 human studies included, within which 8 reported airway replacements, 5 concerned vocal fold regeneration and 3 concerned salivary gland regeneration. Techniques included cell transplantation, injection of biofactors, bioscaffolding and bioengineered laryngeal structures.
Moderate experimental success was identified in the restoration of upper airway, vocal fold and salivary gland function. This review suggests that a shift in regenerative medicine research focus is required toward pathology with a higher disease burden.
The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine whether clinical and subclinical effects on cattle were similar if provided with isoenergetic and isonitrogenous challenge diets in which carbohydrate sources were predominantly starch or sugar. The study was a 3 × 3 Latin square using six adult Jersey cows with rumen cannulae, over 9 weeks. In the first 2 weeks of each 3 week experimental period cows were fed with a maintenance diet and, in the last week, each animal was assigned to one of three diets: a control diet (CON), being a continuation of the maintenance diet; a high starch (HSt) or a high sugar (HSu) diet. Reticuloruminal pH and motility were recorded throughout the study period. Blood and ruminal samples were taken on day-1 (TP-1), day-2 (TP-2) and day-7 (TP-7) of each challenge week. Four clinical variables were recorded daily: diarrhoea, inappetence, depression and ruminal tympany. The effects of treatment, hour of day and day after treatment on clinical parameters were analysed using linear mixed effects (LME) models. Although both challenge diets resulted in a decline in pH, an increase in the absolute pH residuals and an increase in the number of minutes per day under pH 5.8, systemic inflammation was only detected with the HSt diet. The challenge diets differentially modified amplitude and period of reticuloruminal contractions compared with CON diet and both were associated with an increased probability of diarrhoea. The HSu diet reduced the probability of an animal consuming its complete allocation. Because the challenge diets were derived from complex natural materials (barley and molasses respectively), it is not possible to assign all the differential effects to the difference in starch and sugar concentration: non-starch components of barley or non-sugar components of molasses might have contributed to some of the observations. In conclusion, substituting much of the starch with sugar caused no substantial reduction in the acidosis load, but inflammatory response was reduced while feed rejection was increased.
The researches show a rapid growth of mental disorders among adolescents and young adults that often cooccurs with risk behaviours, such as suicide, which is one of the leading cause of death among young ages 15-34. Therefore it's necessary to use some tools that can promote mental health getting to young lives such as Internet and media.
SUPREME (Suicide Prevention by Internet and Media Based Mental Health Promotion) is aimed to increasing the prevention of risk behaviours and mental health promotion through the use of mass media and Internet.
The main expected outcome is to improve mental health among European adolescents.
In each European countries a sample of 300 students (average age of 15 years) will be selected. The prevention program will be a highly interactive website that which will address topics such as raising awareness about mental health and suicide, combating stigma, and stimulate peer help. The program will use different means of referral to the intervention website: “Adolescent related” and “Professional related”. A questionnaire will be administered to the pupils for require the data on lifestyles, values and attitudes, psychological well-being, familiar relationship and friendship.
Some web-sites, managed by mental health professionals, produced encouraging results about their use in prevention of risk behaviours and in increase well-being, especially in youth with low self-esteem and low life-satisfaction. With the implementation of the SUPREME project we will be able to identify best practices for promoting mental health through the Internet and the media.
Posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder is an important comorbidity in terms of its prevalence, clinical impact, and treatment challenges. To date, interventions for this comorbidity have been solely professionally led.
In this pilot study, we sought to evaluate the impact of a peer-led model, using Seeking Safety (SS; Najavits, 2002), which is the most evidence-based intervention thus far for the comorbidity. We adapted it for peer-led use to help make it accessible and safe for this modality.
Eighteen women in residential substance abuse treatment participated. The 25 SS topics were conducted twice weekly. They were assessed at baseline and end of treatment, with some measures also collected at monthly interims.
Results showed decreases in trauma-related symptoms (Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 total scale and all subscales, i.e., dissociation, sexual problems, depression, sleep problems, anxiety, and sexual abuse); self-compassion (the Self-Compassion Scale subscales self-judgment, isolation, and overidentified); the Brief Symptom Inventory (total and all nine subscales); and a measure of use of SS coping skills (total score). Also, ratings of fidelity to SS was very high (on the SS Adherence Scale), as was satisfaction with SS.
Limitations of the study and areas for future research development are discussed.
This article examines the persistence of the handshake in business circles despite its implication in the spread of communicable disease in contemporary pandemic culture. An examination of business etiquette discourse suggests that even during disease outbreaks or flu season, the business handshake remains an important visual and haptic legal gesture. While it may no longer produce a binding legal contract, it stages the parties as contractable subjects, as claiming the status of autonomous individuals committed to defining their intersubjective relationship through the norms of contract. The business handshake thus operates as a cultural site for the complex interaction of bodies and law, and the production of masculine, haptic-legal subjectivity.
Seeds of 15 diverse rice accessions, representing aus, indica, temperate japonica and tropical japonica subpopulations, were produced under temperate climate conditions in Korea and used for vitamin E analysis and seed storage experiments at 45°C and 10.9% seed moisture content. High γ-tocotrienol was significantly positively correlated with seed longevity. In addition, a high β-tocopherol proportion relative to δ-tocopherol was significantly negatively correlated with seed longevity. Using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism marker data, DNA haplotype analysis showed clear allelic variations in the region of two S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes: LOC_Os04g42095 and LOC_Os11g15410, which regulate the conversion of δ-tocopherol into β-tocopherol. Four indica accessions with rare and subpopulation-specific alleles showed a 2.3-fold lower β-/δ-tocopherol ratio compared with accessions from other subpopulations.
A large eddy simulation framework is used to explore the structure of the turbulent flow in a thermally stratified wind turbine array boundary layer. The flow field is driven by a constant geostrophic wind with time-varying surface boundary conditions obtained from a selected period of the CASES-99 field experiment. Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to extract coherent structures of the turbulent flow under the considered thermal stratification regimes. The flow structure is discussed in the context of three-dimensional representations of key modes, which demonstrate features ranging in size from the wind turbine wakes to the atmospheric boundary layer. Results demonstrate that structures related to the atmospheric boundary layer flow dominate over those introduced by the wind farm for the unstable and neutrally stratified regimes; large structures in atmospheric turbulence are beneficial for the wake recovery, and consequently the presence of the turbulent wind turbine wakes is diminished. Contrarily, the flow in the stably stratified case is fully dominated by the presence of the turbines and highly influenced by the Coriolis force. A comparative analysis of the test cases indicates that during the stable regime, higher-order modes contribute less to the overall character of the flow. Under neutral and unstable stratification, important turbulence dynamics are distributed over a larger range of basis functions. The influence of the wind turbines on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer is mainly quantified via the turbulence kinetic energy of the first ten modes. Linking the new insights into structure of the wind turbine/atmospheric boundary layer and their interaction addressed here will benefit the formulation of new simplified models for commercial application.
Mental health stigma and discrimination are significant problems. Common coping orientations include: concealing mental health problems, challenging others and educating others. We describe the use of common stigma coping orientations and explain variations within a sample of English mental health service users.
Cross-sectional survey data were collected as part of the Viewpoint survey of mental health service users’ experiences of discrimination (n = 3005). Linear regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with the three stigma coping orientations.
The most common coping orientation was to conceal mental health problems (73%), which was strongly associated with anticipated discrimination. Only 51% ever challenged others because of discriminating behaviour, this being related to experienced discrimination, but also to higher confidence to tackle stigma.
Although stigma coping orientations vary by context, individuals often choose to conceal problems, which is associated with greater anticipated and experienced discrimination and less confidence to challenge stigma. The direction of this association requires further investigation.
Targets have been developed to measure supersonic radiation transport in aerogel foams using absorption spectroscopy. The target consists of an aerogel foam uniformly doped with either titanium or scandium inserted into an undoped aerogel foam package. This creates a localized doped foam region to provide spatial resolution for the measurement. Development and characterization of the foams is a key challenge in addition to machining and assembling the two foams so they mate without gaps. The foam package is inserted into a beryllium sleeve and mounted on a gold hohlraum. The target is mounted to a holder created using additive manufacturing and mounted on a stalk. The manufacturing of the components, along with assembly and metrology of the target are described here.
Pulse arrival time measurements allow the determination of accurate pulsar periods, period derivatives and, provided the data span is at least one year, precise pulsar positions. If observations are frequent and reasonably regular, irregularities in the period can also be investigated. To minimize the effect of possible variations in dispersion measure, it is important that these observations be made at a relatively high frequency, preferably above 1 GHz. To eliminate pulse shape variations due to variable ionospheric Faraday
rotation, the pulse total intensity or one of the circular polarizations must be recorded.
The aim of this preliminary study was to adapt Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly to fabricate nanocomposite coatings onto open-cell porous structures, enabling customization of mechanical properties and porosity to obtain materials suitable for bone tissue scaffold applications. LbL assembly is a well-established method for fabricating multilayer films with nanometre scale precision over thickness that is based on electrostatic attractions and involves the adsorption of oppositely charged electrolytes onto a substrate. Using LbL assembly, polymer-nanoclay composite coatings were deposited onto open-cell foam substrates. The elastic modulus of coated specimens in compression was improved from 0.078 MPa to 1.736 MPa. The results suggest that polymer-nanoclay coatings deposited via LbL assembly have the potential to improve mechanical properties of porous substrates and fabricate materials with mechanical properties comparable to that of a cancellous bone tissue upon deposition of a sufficient number of multilayers.
Cricopharyngeal dysfunction following head and neck cancer treatment may lead to a significant reduction in oral intake. Carbon dioxide laser is an established procedure for the treatment of non-malignant cricopharyngeal disorders. We report our experience of laser cricopharyngeal myotomy with objective swallowing outcome measures, before and after treatment.
We identified 11 patients who had undergone carbon dioxide laser cricopharyngeal myotomy for dysphagia following radiotherapy, with or without chemotheraphy between January 2006 and July 2011. We analysed the swallowing outcomes following carbon dioxide laser cricopharyngeal myotomy by retrospective grading of pre- and post-procedure videofluoroscopic swallowing study of liquids, using the validated Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile.
The median Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile score was 13 pre-myotomy and 10 post-myotomy. This difference between scores was non-significant (p = 0.41). The median, cricopharyngeal-specific Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile variables (14 and 17) improved from 3 to 2, but were similarly non-significant (p = 0.16). We observed the improved Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile scores post-procedure in the majority of patients.
Endoscopic carbon dioxide laser cricopharyngeal myotomy remains a viable option in treatment-related cricopharyngeal dysfunction; its targeted role requires further prospective study. Objective analysis of the technique can be reported using the validated Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile.
We present two distinct methods to nanostructure the surface of amorphous silicon to produce unique, nanoscale surface features. One method is a dry etch process that employs a modified Bosch1 process on an advanced silicon etcher to produce needle-like features of amorphous silicon. Likewise, we also investigated metal-assisted wet chemical etching2 as an alternative method to nanostructure the amorphous silicon to produce porous-like features. The resulting surface topography leads to an optically black appearance over patterned or large areas. This is a result of the interspacing between each needle and pore that leads to a high optical absorption. Thus, we designate it as black amorphous silicon (b-a-Si). We have deposited and formed regions of b-a-Si on variety of insulating films and metal electrodes, including chrome and titanium. In this study, we characterize the electrical and optical properties of as-deposited amorphous silicon and nanostructured amorphous silicon.
William of Malmesbury (c.1090–c.1142) was a prolific historian and a trustworthy chronicler, described by Professor R. M. Thomson as 'the most learned European of his day' and 'England's greatest national and local historian since Bede'. A Benedictine monk, he spent his adult life at Malmesbury Abbey, where he assisted the Abbot in founding the library, and devoted his time to writing. The Latin text presented here, originally published in 1870 as part of the Rolls Series, is based on the manuscript at Magdalen College, Oxford. It is described with confidence by N. E. S. A. Hamilton as 'no other than Malmesbury's own autograph' - a claim which the editor backs up in his comprehensive preface. Revised and added to over a period of ten years following its completion in around 1125, this early ecclesiastical history of England is as much a historical record as a primary source in its own right.