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The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of the Spanish validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in a Paraguayan population.
Participants were recruited through an Internet-based survey. All participants whose scores in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and The Fear Questionnaire (FQ) were greater than zero were included. 1245 subjects responded voluntarily: 1077 subjects, scoring >0, were considered.
To establish construct validity of the FCV-19S, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using the KMO test, which was adequate, and the Bartlett sphericity test, which was significant (p <.0001). The CFI, NFI, GFI, TLI and RMSEA indices were used to evaluate the model and showed good adjustment. Cronbach’s α showed valid internal consistency (α = 0.86). This validation was supported by significant correlation (p <.001) with the HADS scale for anxiety and depression and with the FQ scale for specific phobia.
The Spanish version of the FCV-19S is a 7-item scale with two dimensions, psychological symptoms and physiological symptoms, which demonstrated robust psychometric properties in a Paraguayan population.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
Oxidative stress suposses an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants molecules. Negative and positive family environment have been related with worse and better outcomes respectively in schizophrenic patients.
Our objetive is to determine antioxidant defense in healthy controls and unaffected relatives of early onset psychosis patients and to asses its relationship with familiar environment.
We included 82 healthy controls (HC) and 14 healthy controls with second degree family history of psychosis (HCWFHP), aged between 9 to 17.
Total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation test were determined in plasma and antioxidant enzime activities and glutathione levels were determined in erytrocytes.
We used the Global Assesment Functioning scale (GAF) and the Family Environment Scale (FES). The FES is made up of ten subscales: cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, independence, achievement, intellectual-cultural, social, moral, organization and control.
The analyses showed a significant decrease in total antioxidant level in HCWFHP compared with the HC (U Mann Withney = 281.00, p=0.009, effect size= -0.78).
HC and HCWFHP did not differ in the GAF scale, nevertheless the scores of HCWFHP were significantly higher in cohesion and intellectual-cultural dimensions of the FES (p=0.007, p=0.025).
Adjusting by this two FES dimensions, antioxidant status remained significantly different between groups: OR= 10.86, p=0.009.
Although we cannot induce causative relations, we can state that family environment is not playing a role in inducing oxidative stress in these subjects. It could be hypothesized that families with affected relatives protect themselves with positive envionmental factors such as cohesion and intellectual-cultural activities.
To study the changes in plasma concentration of homovanillic acid (pHVA) and its relation with clinical outcome during treatment of Bipolar I patients with olanzapine plus lithium.
Patients and Methods:
Fifty six (33 women and 23 men) Bipoar I patients, age 35.1±9.4 (SD) years, diagnosed according to DSM-IV, were treated initially with 10mg/day of olanzapine for 4 days and subsequently with 20 mg/day. On the 8th day lithium was added until a concentration of 0.6 to 1.2 mEq/L was reached in plasma. Patients were, at least, a week without neuroleptic or mood stabilizer medication.
Their clinical state was evaluated before and during 28 days of treatment with the Young scale and with the Clinical Global Impression.
Morning fasting levels of pHVA were analyzed the same days that scales were passed.
Plasma HVA after 28 days of treatment does not decline as habitually happens with neuroleptic treatment alone. Moreover, there was a trend toward significance of a Positive Correlation between pHVA and clinical improvement.
The addition of Lithium to Olanzapine altered the pattern of pHVA response from the first days of treatment up to day 28, suppressing the habitual decline in pHVA concentration. These results are similar to those observed by Bowers et al. (1992) when lithium was combined with perphenazine. The correlation between changes in pHVA concentration during 28 days of treatment and clinical outcome was the opposite to that found in schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics alone.
The introduction of the first atypical antipsychotic with a long acting formulation has open new therapeutic options for the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Our objective consists of comparing psychopathology levels and global functioning in patients with paranoid schizophrenia treated in monotherapy either with long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR) or conventional depot antipsychotics (DA).
Patients attending at the community mental health center during the six-month recruitment period were eligible to enter the study. Scores achieved in positive and negative subscales of PANNS and EEAG scale of (Global Activity Evaluating Scale) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months later. Six patients treated with RLAI and six patients treated with DA were recruited. Data were analyzed both with the real sample (N=6 per group) and extrapoling the same results to a bigger sample size (N=24 per group).
Mean increase in scores for both PANNS positive and negative subscales were lower in patients treated with RLAI that in those treated with DA (positive subscale: 0.018±0.06 vs. 0.048±0.03, RLAI and DA, respectively, p=0.387; negative subscale: 0.232±0.076 vs. 0.3095±0.123, RLAI and DA, respectively, p=0.579). EEAG scores were higher for patients treated with RLAI than those treated with DA (1.250±0.56 vs. 0.333±0.225, p=0.144). When these results are extrapolated to a sample of 24 patients per group, differences in EEAG reach statistical significance (p=0.034).
After 6 months of treatment, patients treated with RLAI tend to show a greater improvement in their global activity than those treated with DA.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)presents high levels of life-long comorbidity. Several studies demonstrate an elevated coocurrence between ADHD and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) as well as personality disorders.
The objective of this poster is to demonstrate differential characteristics between ADHD with SUD patients versus ADHD without SUD, in relation to Axis II comorbidity, ADHD symptoms severity and childhood behavioural disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder).
Another objective is to identify differences in the prevalence of SUD relative to gender and ADHD subtype (Inattentive, Hyperactive/Impulsive and Combined).
This will be done using a comparative-descriptive study that was carried out with a sample of 125 adults diagnosed with ADHD using the CAADID in the Adult ADHD Integral Programme (PIDAA) of Vall d'Hebron Universitari Hospital; 53 subjects presented associated SUD (DSM-IV). All the subjects were evaluated with ADHD Rating Scale, SCID-I, SCID-II and K-SADS.
Relative to ADHD group, subjects ADHD with SUD subjects showed higher comorbidity with Axis–II Disorders, especially with antisocial, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders, as well as major prevalence of conductual disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in childhood. There were no significant differences respect to ADHD symptoms severity nor ADHD subtype between both groups. A major proportion of men were observed in ADHD with SUD group compared to ADHD patients.
In the past few decades, new and more efficient techniques to help solve fertility problems have become widely available throughout the developed world. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences on psychopathology factors between women who had conceived after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and women who had conceived naturally.
The sample was composed of 41 pregnant women of whom 28 women had conceived through assisted reproductive technology (IVF) and 13 had conceived naturally. Women were evaluated by week 20 of pregnancy at the Infanta Cristina University Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, in Badajoz. Women consented to complete the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R).
IVF women were characterized by higher scores on Anxiety Scale (t = 3.90; p = 0.045) and lower scores on Hostility Scale (t = 4.35; p = 0.041) than women who had conceived naturally. There were no differences in the others scales.
IVF women appear to present a temperamental profile characterized by a tendency to anxiety. Further research is needed to firstly, confirm these preliminary findings, and secondly, to longitudinally explore its impact on pregnancy outcome and mother-infant attachment.
Literature about suicide behavior often shows equity between suicide attempt and deliberate self harm (DSH). The objective of this study is to differentiate suicide attempt from DSH regarding the frequency, methods used, reasons, and purposes.
Data were collected from 1,551 junior high school students from Mexico City Downtown (2003 and 2006 academic generations). The questionnaire included the CIP (Cédula de Indicadores Parasuicidas: Parasuicide Indicators Schedule), suicide ideation, depression, and others. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous.
DSH overall prevalence was 5.8% male and 20.5% female, including 3.9% and 16.7% of ambivalent suicide attempt, and 0.7% and 6.1% of suicide attempt with death purpose. Most of the boys who attempted suicide used sharp objects. Reasons in both sexes were mostly related to interpersonal area, and the purpose was to stop suffering. The most frequent method used in DSH was sharp objects; reasons for boys were in the emotional area and in the interpersonal for girls. The purpose was continue living.
It is important to distinguish between suicide attempt and DSH to obtain more precise information about the problems and its characteristics. Results show that both of these are a considerable matter among adolescents; tough they have different characteristics, with a considerable suicide risk. Mental health promotion and attention must begin during elementary school in order to prevent more serious distress and illness during adolescence and adult age.
Paranoid Schizophrenia (PS), yet included within the same nosological category than Non-Paranoid Schizophrenia (NPS), may in fact constitute a different disorder. In this study, the above both schizophrenia subtypes are compared with Delusional Disorder (DD). We hypothesized that, phenomenologically PS could either be a half-way category between DD and NPS or part of a phenomenological continuum of psychotic and cognitive symptoms between these three psychotic categories.
102 patients fulfilling DSM-IV-TR criteria of schizophrenia (with 56 PS and 46 with NPS) and 80 DD patients were included in this study (n=182). We compared outcome groups (DD vs. PS vs. NPS) on clinical dimensions, global functioning and sociodemographics. Clinical dimensions were extracted from the PANSS and neuropsychological scales using Principal-Component-Analysis and, subsequently, cluster analysis to assign subjects to empirically emerging clinical groups. The associations between such groups and DSM-IV-TR groups were explored using polynomial regression.
We found lineal associations demonstrating empirically that, from the psychopathological, neuropsychological and functioning perspectives, it is reasonable to consider PS as an intermediate and independent category right in between DD and NPS. Thus, the distribution of subjects assigned to three empirically emerging clinical groups (Paranoid-Affective, Paranoid-Hostile and Negative) associated, significantly and preferentially, with DSM-IV categories along the following fashion: The proportion of paranoid-hostile and, particularly, paranoid-affective subjects decreased progressively along DD, PS and NPS categories; On the contrary, the proportion of negative subjects increased lineally along those categories (Mante-Haenszel-X2= 18.02;p=0.0001). Our results question, on the bases of an empirical study, the current categorical division of paranoid psychoses.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
To examine the predictive diagnostic value of affective symptomatology in a first-episode psychosis (FEP) sample with 5 years’ follow-up.
Affective dimensions (depressive, manic, activation, dysphoric) were measured at baseline and 5 years in 112 FEP patients based on a factor structure analysis using the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patients were classified as having a diagnosis of bipolar disorder at baseline (BDi), bipolar disorder at 5 years (BDf), or “other psychosis”. The ability of affective dimensions to discriminate between these diagnostic groups and to predict a bipolar disorder diagnosis was analysed.
Manic dimension score was higher in BDi vs. BDf, and both groups had higher manic and activation scores vs. “other psychosis”. Activation dimension predicted a bipolar diagnosis at 5 years (odds ratio = 1.383; 95% confidence interval, 1.205–1.587; P = 0.000), and showed high levels of sensitivity (86.2%), specificity (71.7%), positive (57.8%) and negative predictive value (90.5%). Absence of the manic dimension and presence of the depressive dimension were both significant predictors of an early misdiagnosis.
The activation dimension is a diagnostic predictor for bipolar disorder in FEP. The manic dimension contributes to a bipolar diagnosis and its absence can lead to early misdiagnosis.
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder which involves chronic or recurrent psychosis and it is commonly associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning. Antipsychotic medications are a first-line treatment, however, most patients experience disabling impairment even after benefiting from antipsychotics, including positive and negative symptoms, cognitive deficits, poor social functioning and episodes of acute symptomatic relapse.
Systematic literature review in UpToDate and Pubmed.
To identify the most relevant intervention areas of systematic rehabilitation in schizophrenia.
45 years old schizophrenic male who admitted in a Medium Stay Psychiatry Unit with severe behavioural impairment and psychotic symptoms. At least 10 hospitalizations and pronounced disability in basic life skills despite optimal treatment. Poor insight and compliance, frequent relapses, co-morbid substance abuse and difficult family support. Clozapine was added to his treatment with improvement in psychotic symptoms. A multidisciplinary intervention was also done and he was discharged home with important improvement in social skills, better insight and familiar functioning
Despite following an adequate antipsychotic treatment, including Clozapine as the main medication in resistant schizophrenia, it is often partially effective with severe impairments in social and occupational functioning. Family-based interventions, cognitive behavioural therapy and social skills training, added to this medication seem to be essential in the systematic treatment of schizoprenia. It includes a multidisciplinary team and a specific length of time but it is based on the patient's status. Despite evidence of their efectiveness, the availability of these interventions varies widely, as does the availability of clinicians to provide them.
Psychedelic drugs were used extensively in psychotherapy in the 1950s to lower psychological defences and facilitate emotional insight. Thousands of research participants were administered hallucinogens in the context of basic clinical research or therapeutic clinical research, resulting in hundreds of publications. Results across studies were ultimately inconclusive due to such variations in methods and a lack of modern controls and experimental rigour. The growing controversy and sensationalism resulted in increasing restrictions on access to hallucinogens throughout the 1960s (ultimately resulting in the placement of the most popular hallucinogens into Schedule I of the 1970 Controlled Substances Act in the United States).
Renewed human administration research began in the 1990s. Recent clinical studies have administered hallucinogens to evaluate their safety and efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: specifically, anxiety related to advanced-stage cancer (Grob, 2005), obsessive-compulsive disorder (Moreno, et al., 2006), heroin dependence (Krupitsky, et al., 2007), personal meaning and spiritual significance (Griffiths, et al., 2008), and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of LSD for alcoholism (Krebs,et al., 2012).
Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy utilizes the acute psychological effects of psychedelic drugs to enhance the normal mechanisms of psychotherapy. The effects of psychedelic psychotherapy are often very pronounced within several days or weeks after a treatment session, but then these effects quickly decline. This phenomenon was termed a “psychedelic afterglow”.
Fhurther research, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, methodology should explore the efficacy of hallucinogens.
Tapentadol is a centrally-acting synthetic analgesic which acts as a mu-opioid receptor agonist as well as a norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor. It is use to treat cronic pain. Most prevalence adverse effects are gastrointestinal and nervous symptoms. Furthermore, it has objectified, with less frequency, psychiatric disturbances.
To analyse the relationship between a maniac episode and tapentadol.
Forty-nine-year-old female, with personal history of dyslipidemia and lumbar herniated discs in L4-L5, L5-S1, in treatment with tapentadol 200 mg/day for 20 days and no past psychiatric history. She was admitted to the Psychiatry Department due to a maniac episode, with desinhibition, pressure and loud speech, euphoria, megalomaniac delusion and sleep disturbance for the last 10 days. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was 36 points. Olanzapina 15 mg/day was introduced and tapentadol was removed. Symptoms remitted quickly and 6 days later, at discharge, YMRS was 4 points. One year later, the patient continued to be asymptomatic.
Opioids can produce psychiatric disorders like hallucination, sleep disorders, depressed mood, disorientation, agitation, nervousness, restlessness, euphoric mood. Secondary mania to tapentadol mechanism is unknown, but having opiate cases described, it is possible to attribute this episode to tapentadol.
– Secondary mania is associated with various medical conditions, including vitamin B12 deficiency, brain injury, HIV infection and drugs such as alcohol, caffeine, sympathomimetics, steroids, bupropion, isoniazid, clarithromycin and opioids.
– Further research is required to determine if the maniac episode was only isolated by the tapentadol or it is the beginning of a bipolar disorder.
There is a lack of accurate screening tools for suicide risk in the patients presenting to emergency departments. The Personality and Life Event (PLE) Scale, a set of the 27 most discriminative items from a collection of questionnaires usually employed in the assessment of suicidal behavior, demostrated an elevated accuracy, sensibility, and specificity in classifying suicide attempters.
To validate the self-administered PLE Scale.
Material and methods:
In order to examine its psychometric properties, the PLE scale was administered to 59 suicide attempters, 48 psychiatric controls, and 69 medical patients attending the Puerta de Hierro emergency department. To examine its reliability, we used: 1) Cronbach's coefficient α to evaluate the internal consistency; 2) test-retest reliability to assess if the scale is stable over time. Interrater reliability is not relevant as the PLE is a self-report. To assess its construct validity, we used some of Beck's Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). All analyses were carried out using SPSS v.20 (Macintosh).
The most frequent criteria for suicide attempters were item 4 (‘I often feel empty inside’; 88.1%) and 20 (‘I act on impulse’; 79,7%). Mean (± SD) of the PLE Scale in suicide attempters, psychiatric controls, and medical controls was 74.49 (± 32.44), 57.19 (± 29.63), and 17.48 (± 21.15), respectively. The PLE had an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha =0,674).
Our preliminary findings support the reliability, construct validity, and ussefulness of the PLE to identify suicide attempters to those attending to emergency departments.
Recently, a renaissance of interest in ‘negative symptoms’ as emotional withdrawal or blunted affect, has occurred. Some investigators believe that these symptoms are important indicators of outcome, of response to treatment and of a distinct underlying pathologic process.
Research on the negative-symptom syndrome in schizophrenia has been handicapped until recently.
This research aims at studying whether acute phase proteins, precisely, Alpha1-glycoprotein, can be considered as a marker of negativesymptom in Schizophrenia.
29 chronic schizophrenics were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). A routine blood test including Alpha1-glycoprotein levels was carried out.
Alpha1-glycoprotein shows a positive correlation, according to Pearson correlation coefficient, with the Negative Scale at an almost significant level (p=.05), and at a significant level in the following items, Blunted affect (p=.03), Passive/apathetic Social Withdrawal (p=.01) of the Negative spectrum and Poor Attention (p=.02) of the General Psychopathology Scale.
There is a significant correlation with two Negative variables and an almost significant one, spite of the small sample, with the Negative Scale. Further studies with bigger samples are needed in order to consider alpha1-glycoprotein as a schizophrenia negative psychopathology marker.
Childbirth always constitutes a profound change in the life of the mother and the rest of the family. Pregnancy, birth and postpartum are crucial periods where the mother will have to face unknown situations and make decisions that are going to determine the strength and type of bond between mother and baby. In the specific case of women with mental illness, this time can involve an important risk of descompensation or aggravation of her condition. For this reason, a specific attention to these patients in moments of special vulnerability, as pregnancy and perinatal period, is necessary.
In our community there are few resources for this need, and because of this we have initiated a program involving perinatal care for women diagnosed with severe mental diseases. The objective of the program is to improve clinical stability of the mother and strengthen the bond with the baby, trying to make it secure and stable.
Our methodology is based on a comprehensive approach including clinical, pharmacological and familiar interventions. Health promotion and coordination with primary care, obstetrics and pediatrics are necessary as well.
To illustrate this, we present here two clinical cases that are being followed in our program. The first one is an adolescent mother with an affective disorder consequence of an unstructured family and several years of violence at home. The second case is a patient with undiagnosed psychotic disorder with serious psychotic symptoms during the pregnancy requiring hospitalization.
It is well known the relationship of manic episode with the consumption of different drugs organic diseases, and psychiatric drugs, such as mood stabilizers and antidepressants. There are several commonly used substances, mainly psychostimulant, potentially inducing psychiatric pathology.
To study other possible causes of substance-induced manic episode.
We report a case of manic episode with psychotic symptoms without previous psychiatric background, after consumption of Korean Ginseng.
Results and conclusions
It is necessary to scrutinize other possible substances, not usually described in the literature related to the onset of psychiatric illness, being necessary to ask about this use during the clinical interview.
Disturbed body image perception and personality features and the way they influence eating disorders have been frequently studied in patients with eating disorders, but not in children's non clinical samples.
To analyze the influence of body image perception and personality features on eating disturbances in a non clinical sample of children
Longitudinal study. The sample was composed of 100 children, who were assessed at eleven and thirteen. Emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects of the body image were evaluated using BPSS, BSQ, DST, BIAQ and body mass index (BMI). To assess personality features the EPQ was used and to assess eating disorders three scale of EDI-2 (drive for thinness, bulimia and body dissatisfaction) were used. For the statistic analysis, stepwise regression was used.
In the boys’ group, introversion ate 11 positively correlated with drive for thinness at 13. Neuroticism predicted higher bulimia score and body mass index predicted body dissatisfaction. In the girls’ group, neuroticism predicted drive for thinness, psychoticism predicted higher bulimia and higher BMI predict body dissatisfaction.
Personality features and BMI seem to predict at eleven the eating disturbances that will be detected later, at thirteen.