To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During 2011–2014, 2700 sera from 300 swine herds were tested for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was searched in 959 faecal pools from HEV-seropositive herds and in liver/bile/muscle samples from 179 pigs from HEV-positive herds. A cohort study of HEV seropositivity in swine workers (n = 149) was also performed using two comparison groups of people unexposed to swine: omnivores (n = 121) and vegetarians/vegans (n = 115). Herd-level seroprevalence was 75·6% and was highest in farrow-to-feeder herds (81·6%). Twenty-six out of 105 (24·8%) herds had HEV-positive faecal samples (25 HEV-3, one HEV-4). Only one bile sample tested positive. HEV seropositivity was 12·3% in swine workers, 0·9% in omnivores and 3·0% in vegetarians/vegans. Factors significantly associated with HEV seropositivity were occupational exposure to pigs, travel to Africa and increased swine workers’ age. We concluded that HEV is widespread in Italian swine herds and HEV-4 circulation is alarming given its pathogenicity, with those occupationally exposed to pigs being at increased risk of HEV seropositivity.
Multi-decade observing campaigns of the globular clusters 47 Tucanae and M15 have led to an outstanding number of discoveries. Here, we report on the latest results of the long-term observations of the pulsars in these two clusters. For most of the pulsars in 47 Tucanae we have measured, among other things, their higher-order spin period derivatives, which have in turn provided stringent constraints on the physical parameters of the cluster, such as its distance and gravitational potential. For M15, we have studied the relativistic spin precession effect in PSR B2127+11C. We have used full-Stokes observations to model the precession effect, and to constrain the system geometry. We find that the visible beam of the pulsar is swiftly moving away from our line of sight and may very soon become undetectable. On the other hand, we expect to see the opposite emission beam sometime between 2041 and 2053.
A total of 18 radio sources selected on the basis of steep low-frequency radio spectra have been searched for the presence of millisecond pulsars using the Molonglo Observatory synthesis telescope. The search covered pulsar periods down to 2 ms with a limiting sensitivity of approximately 10 mJy. No pulsars were detected.
The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 105 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70 cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.
In-line monitoring of the electrical properties of high-k dielectrics in logic or memory fab-lines has become increasingly important in the semiconductor industry. Non-contact corona-Kelvin based metrology can be used to affectively monitor in-line key dielectric properties. Furthermore, we present an important extension of this metrology to the micro-scale that allows measurement of dielectric properties on test sites as small as 40μm × 70μm. This is achieved through miniaturization of the corona charging apparatus and of the Kelvin probe without a sacrifice in precision or repeatability. Corona-Kelvin micro-metrology allows for the monitoring of the critical dielectric properties directly on product wafers that can then be returned to the fab-line for continued processing. Application examples are given for dielectric capacitance of advanced dielectrics and for the properties of an oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) memory structure. In the latter case we demonstrate programming and erasing of the ONO structure realized by corona charging. We also use the measured flatband voltage and total charge to identify the location of the programmed charge at the first SiO2/Si3N4 interface in the ONO structure.
In this paper, we present a non-contact C-V technique
for ultra-thin dielectrics on silicon. The technique
uses incremental corona charging of dielectric and a
measurement of the surface potential with a vibrating
capacitive electrode. A differential quasistatic C-V
curve is generated using time-resolved measurements.
The technique incorporates transconductance corrections
that enable corresponding ultra-low electrical oxide
thickness (EOT) determination down to the sub-nanometer
range. It also provides a means for monitoring the flat
band voltage, VFB, the interface trap spectrum,
DIT, and the total dielectric charge, QTOT. This
technique is seen as a replacement for not only MOS C-V
measurements but also for mercury-probe C-V. In addition, EOT
measurement by the corona C-V has a major advantage over optical
thickness methods because it is not affected by water adsorption
and molecular airborne contamination, MAC. These effects have
been a problem for optical metrology of ultra-thin dielectrics.
PSRs J1847–0130 and J1718–37184 have inferred surface dipole magnetic fields greater than those of any other known pulsars and well above the “quantum critical field” above which some models predict radio emission should not occur. These fields are similar to those of the anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), which growing evidence suggests are “magnetars”. The lack of AXP-like X-ray emission from these radio pulsars (and the non-detection of radio emission from the AXPs) creates new challenges for understanding pulsar emission physics and the relationship between these classes of apparently young neutron stars.
Measurement of accurate positions, pulse periods and period derivatives is an essential follow-up to any pulsar survey. The procedures being used to obtain timing parameters for the pulsars discovered in the Parkes multibeam pulsar survey are described. Completed solutions have been obtained so far for about 80 pulsars. They show that the survey is preferentially finding pulsars with higher than average surface dipole magnetic fields. Eight pulsars have been shown to be members of binary systems and some of the more interesting results relating to these are presented.
The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey which began in 1997 and is now about 50% complete. It has discovered more than 400 new pulsars so far, including a number of young, high magnetic field, and relativistic binary pulsars. Early results, descriptions of the survey and follow up timing programs can be found in papers by Lyne et al. (1999 MNRAS in press), Camilo et al. (this volume), and Manchester et al. (this volume). This paper describes the data release policy and how you can gain access to the raw data and details on the pulsars discovered.
The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey uses a 13-element receiver operating at a wavelength of 20 cm to survey the inner Galactic plane with remarkable sensitivity. To date we have collected and analyzed data from 45% of the survey region (|b| < 5°; 260° < l < 50°), and have discovered 440 pulsars, in addition to re-detecting 190 previously known ones. Most of the newly discovered pulsars are at great distances, as inferred from a median dispersion measure (DM) of 400 cm−3 pc.
It is widely accepted and almost certainly true that both pulsars and supernova remnants (SNRs) are products of the collapse of a star at the end of its evolution. Given this, it is a considerable puzzle why, of the more than 120 known SNRs in the Galaxy, only two have unambiguously associated pulsars. Beaming of the pulsar emission probably accounts for the absence of detectable pulsars in up to 80% of the SNRs; however, this still leaves 20–30 SNRs in which one should be able to detect a pulsar. Vivekanand and Narayan (1981) show that there is a deficit of pulsars with periods ≲0.5 s and suggest that a majority of pulsars do not become active for a time ∼104 years after their birth. This would account for the lack of pulsar-SNR associations. It is however possible that the observed lack of short-period pulsars is simply due to observational selection. In the past, most pulsar searches have been made at relatively low radio frequencies, typically close to 400 MHz. At these frequencies SNRs are bright and the effects of interstellar scattering are significant, especially for distant, short-period pulsars. Further, most of these searches have used a relatively long sampling interval, typically about 20 ms, which further reduces the sensitivity for short-period pulsars.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.