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Alterations in heart rate (HR) may provide new information about physiological signatures of depression severity. This 2-year study in individuals with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) explored the intra-individual variations in HR parameters and their relationship with depression severity.
Data from 510 participants (Number of observations of the HR parameters = 6666) were collected from three centres in the Netherlands, Spain, and the UK, as a part of the remote assessment of disease and relapse-MDD study. We analysed the relationship between depression severity, assessed every 2 weeks with the Patient Health Questionnaire-8, with HR parameters in the week before the assessment, such as HR features during all day, resting periods during the day and at night, and activity periods during the day evaluated with a wrist-worn Fitbit device. Linear mixed models were used with random intercepts for participants and countries. Covariates included in the models were age, sex, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption, antidepressant use and co-morbidities with other medical health conditions.
Decreases in HR variation during resting periods during the day were related with an increased severity of depression both in univariate and multivariate analyses. Mean HR during resting at night was higher in participants with more severe depressive symptoms.
Our findings demonstrate that alterations in resting HR during all day and night are associated with depression severity. These findings may provide an early warning of worsening depression symptoms which could allow clinicians to take responsive treatment measures promptly.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is prevalent, often chronic, and requires ongoing monitoring of symptoms to track response to treatment and identify early indicators of relapse. Remote Measurement Technologies (RMT) provide an exciting opportunity to transform the measurement and management of MDD, via data collected from inbuilt smartphone sensors and wearable devices alongside app-based questionnaires and tasks.
To describe the amount of data collected during a multimodal longitudinal RMT study, in an MDD population.
RADAR-MDD is a multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study. People with a history of MDD were provided with a wrist-worn wearable, and several apps designed to: a) collect data from smartphone sensors; and b) deliver questionnaires, speech tasks and cognitive assessments and followed-up for a maximum of 2 years.
A total of 623 individuals with a history of MDD were enrolled in the study with 80% completion rates for primary outcome assessments across all timepoints. 79.8% of people participated for the maximum amount of time available and 20.2% withdrew prematurely. Data availability across all RMT data types varied depending on the source of data and the participant-burden for each data type. We found no evidence of an association between the severity of depression symptoms at baseline and the availability of data. 110 participants had > 50% data available across all data types, and thus able to contribute to multiparametric analyses.
RADAR-MDD is the largest multimodal RMT study in the field of mental health. Here, we have shown that collecting RMT data from a clinical population is feasible.
Macular pigment (MP) is composed of lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ). The present study reports on serum response to three different MP supplements in normal subjects (n 27) and in subjects with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (n 27). Subjects were randomly assigned to: Group 1 (20 mg L and 2 mg Z), Group 2 (10 mg L, 2 mg Z and 10 mg MZ) or Group 3 (3 mg L, 2 mg Z and 17 mg MZ). Serum carotenoids were quantified at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks using HPLC. Response data for normal and AMD subjects were comparable and therefore combined for analysis. We report response as the average of the 4- and 8-week concentrations (saturation plateau). Serum L increased significantly in Group 1 (0·036 μmol/l per mg (269 %); P< 0·001) and Group 2 (0·079 μmol/l per mg (340 %); P< 0·001), with no significant change in Group 3 (0·006 μmol/l per mg (7 %); P= 0·466). Serum Z increased significantly in Group 1 (0·037 μmol/l per mg (69 %); P= 0·001) and Group 2 (0·015 μmol/l per mg (75 %); P< 0·001), with no significant change in Group 3 ( − 0·0002 μmol/l per mg ( − 6 %); P= 0·384). Serum MZ increased significantly in Group 1 (0·0094 μmol/l (absolute value); P= 0·015), Group 2 (0·005 μmol/l per mg; P< 0·001) and Group 3 (0·004 μmol/l per mg; P< 0·001). The formulation containing all three macular carotenoids (Group 2 supplement) was the most efficacious in terms of achieving the highest combined concentration of the three MP constituent carotenoids in serum, thereby potentially optimising the bioavailability of these compounds for capture by the target tissue (retina).
Recursive formulae satisfied by the Fourier coefficients of meromorphic modular forms on groups of genus zero have been investigated by several authors. Bruinier et al. [‘The arithmetic of the values of modular functions and the divisors of modular forms’, Compositio Math. 140(3) (2004), 552–566] found recurrences for SL(2,ℤ); Ahlgren [‘The theta-operator and the divisors of modular forms on genus zero subgroups’, Math. Res. Lett.10(5–6) (2003), 787–798] investigated the groups Γ0(p); Atkinson [‘Divisors of modular forms on Γ0(4)’, J. Number Theory112(1) (2005), 189–204] considered Γ0(4), and S. Y. Choi [‘The values of modular functions and modular forms’, Canad. Math. Bull.49(4) (2006), 526–535] found the corresponding formulae for the groups Γ+0(p). In this paper we generalize these results and find recursive formulae for the Fourier coefficients of any meromorphic modular form f on any genus-zero group Γ commensurable with SL(2,ℤ) , including noncongruence groups and expansions at irregular cusps. The form of the recurrence relations is well suited for the computation of the Fourier coefficients of the functions and forms on the groups which occur in monstrous and generalized moonshine. The required initial data has, in many cases, been computed by Norton (private communication).
A tendency to make hasty decisions on probabilistic reasoning tasks and a difficulty attributing mental states to others are key cognitive features of persecutory delusions (PDs) in the context of schizophrenia. This study examines whether these same psychological anomalies characterize PDs when they present in the context of psychotic depression.
Performance on measures of probabilistic reasoning and theory of mind (ToM) was examined in five subgroups differing in diagnostic category and current illness status.
The tendency to draw hasty decisions in probabilistic settings and poor ToM tested using story format feature in PDs irrespective of diagnosis. Furthermore, performance on the ToM story task correlated with the degree of distress caused by and preoccupation with the current PDs in the currently deluded groups. By contrast, performance on the non-verbal ToM task appears to be more sensitive to diagnosis, as patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders perform worse on this task than those with depression irrespective of the presence of PDs.
The psychological anomalies associated with PDs examined here are transdiagnostic but different measures of ToM may be more or less sensitive to indices of severity of the PDs, diagnosis and trait- or state-related cognitive effects.
The petrological examination of stone implements from Leicestershire commenced in 1947, when Mr W. A. Seaby of Birmingham Museum, assisted by Mr F. W. Cottrill of Leicester Museum, started to record the implements from the county. The work of thin-sectioning was undertaken by Professor F. W. Shotton of Birmingham University. In 1955, Mr J. Bartlett, then Deputy Director of Sheffield Museum, began a similar study in Derbyshire, and he also called on Professor Shotton for the petrological identifications. Within a few years, all the stone implements in Leicester, Sheffield, Derby and Buxton Museums had been sectioned, as well as those in Mr J. P. Heathcote's private museum at Birchover and a number of smaller private collections. By 1958, about 200 implements had been sectioned, 170 from Derbyshire and 30 from Leicestershire, and Professor Shotton had handed over the petrological work on the Derbyshire implements to his colleague, Dr G. R. Coope. During the last few years, while mainly concerned with Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire (Cummins and Moore, 1973), we (the authors) have also examined a number of implements from Derbyshire and Leicestershire. Then, at the Implement Petrology Meeting at Birmingham in May 1972, we were invited to complete this work and prepare it for publication. Professor Shotton and Dr Coope very generously handed over their Derbyshire sections and the Leicestershire sections were kindly loaned by Leicester Museum.
Plans for the petrological examination of stone axes from Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire (C.B.A. Group 14) were initiated in 1946, when Mr F. T. Baker, now Director of the City of Lincoln Libraries, Museum and Art Gallery, agreed to become local secretary to the survey. Professor W. D. Evans (now Lord Energlyn), Head of the Geology Department at Nottingham University, undertook the petrological side of the work, and the thin sections were cut by Mr R. D. Hendry, Chief Technician to the Department. By 1962 about 120 sections had been cut and these were sent to Dr F. S. Wallis and Mr E. D. Evens, who found that a large proportion of them could be assigned to already established groups. During the next few years, the number of axes sectioned rose to 180. In 1968 Dr W. A. Cummins took over the petrological work and in 1970 Mr C. N. Moore became the local secretary. Since 1969, the sections have been cut by Mr J. Blount at Imperial College, London.
The present report is based on 422 stone axes from Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and Rutland. This total includes nearly all the axes in local museums within the area, as well as the relevant axes from the British Museum and a considerable number from private collections. The only local museum collections not included are those at Louth, Stamford and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. In view of this, it is considered that the report gives a fairly representative coverage of the axes found in the area. A breakdown of this coverage is given in Table 1.
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