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To expedite the use of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions (EBSCIs) in primary care and to thereby increase the number of successful quit attempts, a referral aid was developed. This aid aims to optimize the referral to and use of EBSCIs in primary care and to increase adherence to Dutch guidelines for smoking cessation.
Practice nurses (PNs) will be randomly allocated to an experimental condition or control condition, and will then recruit smoking patients who show a willingness to quit smoking within six months. PNs allocated to the experimental condition will provide smoking cessation guidance in accordance with the referral aid. Patients from both conditions will receive questionnaires at baseline and after six months. Cessation effectiveness will be tested via multilevel logistic regression analyses. Multiple imputations as well as intention to treat analysis will be performed. Intervention appreciation and level of informed decision-making will be compared using analysis of (co)variance. Predictors for appreciation and informed decision-making will be assessed using multiple linear regression analysis and/or structural equation modeling. Finally, a cost-effectiveness study will be conducted.
This paper describes the study design for the development and evaluation of an information and decision tool to support PNs in their guidance of smoking patients and their referral to EBSCIs. The study aims to provide insight into the (cost) effectiveness of an intervention aimed at expediting the use of EBSCIs in primary care.
The COVID-19 pandemic is an unparalleled global crisis. Yet, despite the grave adversity faced by citizens, incumbents around the world experienced a boost in popularity during the onset of the outbreak. In this study, we examine how the response to the COVID-19 outbreak in one country affected incumbent support in other countries. Specifically, we leverage the fact that the first country-wide lockdown on European soil, in Italy on 9 March 2020, happened during the fieldwork of surveys conducted in four other European countries, France, Germany, Poland and Spain. This allows us to examine how an event abroad that alerted citizens to an imminent crisis—prior to a similar domestic government response—influenced incumbent support. Our results indicate a crisis signal effect of Italy's COVID-19 lockdown, as support for the incumbent increased domestically in other European countries after the lockdown. Importantly, these findings suggest that incumbents can benefit from a crisis unfolding in other countries, even when their own performance in response to the same crisis is not yet fully clear. They illustrate the importance of developments abroad for incumbent approval and the difficulty facing citizens seeking to disentangle performance signals from exogenous shocks.
Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid, which has been theorized to be due to an underlying internalizing vulnerability. We aimed to identify groups of participants with differing vulnerabilities by examining the course of internalizing psychopathology up to age 45.
We used data from 24158 participants (aged 45+) in 23 population-based cross-sectional World Mental Health Surveys. Internalizing disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We applied latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and investigated the characteristics of identified classes using logistic or linear regression.
The best-fitting LCGA solution identified eight classes: a healthy class (81.9%), three childhood-onset classes with mild (3.7%), moderate (2.0%), or severe (1.1%) internalizing comorbidity, two puberty-onset classes with mild (4.0%) or moderate (1.4%) comorbidity, and two adult-onset classes with mild comorbidity (2.7% and 3.2%). The childhood-onset severe class had particularly unfavorable sociodemographic outcomes compared to the healthy class, with increased risks of being never or previously married (OR = 2.2 and 2.0, p < 0.001), not being employed (OR = 3.5, p < 0.001), and having a low/low-average income (OR = 2.2, p < 0.001). Moderate or severe (v. mild) comorbidity was associated with 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 1.9 and 4.8, p < 0.001), disability (B = 1.1–2.3, p < 0.001), and suicidal ideation (OR = 4.2, p < 0.001 for severe comorbidity only). Adult (v. childhood) onset was associated with lower rates of 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 0.2, p < 0.001).
We identified eight transdiagnostic trajectories of internalizing psychopathology. Unfavorable outcomes were concentrated in the 1% of participants with childhood onset and severe comorbidity. Early identification of this group may offer opportunities for preventive interventions.
This study determined the gluten content of foods and meals consumed by coeliac disease (CD) patients who adhere to a gluten-free diet, and to estimate the total daily intake of gluten of these patients. CD patients fulfilling defined inclusion criteria were preselected and approached for participation in the study. Duplicate portions (DP) of foods and mixed dishes were collected from the CD patients for evaluating complete daily food intake during two individual days. Also, for these days, written food records were completed by the participants. From each DP, a laboratory sample was prepared and analysed for its gluten concentration and total daily gluten intake was calculated. Each individual’s total daily intakes of energy and macronutrients were calculated using the Dutch food composition database. In total, twenty-seven CD patients participated, seven males and twenty females, aged between 21 and 64 years. In thirty-two (6 %) of 499 food samples collected in total, more than 3 mg/kg gluten was present. In four of these thirty-two samples, the gluten concentration was above the European legal limit of 20 mg/kg and three of the four samples had a gluten-free label. The maximal gluten intake was 3·3 mg gluten/d. The gluten tolerance for sensitive CD patients (>0·75 mg/d) was exceeded on at least six out of fifty-four study days. To also protect these sensitive CD patients, legal thresholds should be re-evaluated and the detection limit of analytical methods for gluten analysis lowered.
This paper aimed to: retrospectively analyse single-centre results in terms of surgical success, respiratory outcomes and adverse events after short-term follow up in obstructive sleep apnoea patients treated with upper airway stimulation; and evaluate the correlation between pre-operative drug-induced sleep endoscopy findings and surgical success.
A retrospective descriptive cohort study was conducted, including a consecutive series of obstructive sleep apnoea patients undergoing implantation of an upper airway stimulation system.
Forty-four patients were included. The total median Apnoea–Hypopnea Index and oxygen desaturation index significantly decreased from 37.6 to 8.3 events per hour (p < 0.001) and from 37.1 to 15.9 events per hour (p < 0.001), respectively. The surgical success rate was 88.6 per cent, and did not significantly differ between patients with or without complete collapse at the retropalatal level (p = 0.784). The most common therapy-related adverse event reported was (temporary) stimulation-related discomfort.
Upper airway stimulation is an effective and safe treatment in obstructive sleep apnoea patients with continuous positive airway pressure intolerance or failure. There was no significant difference in surgical outcome between patients with tongue base collapse with or without complete anteroposterior collapse at the level of the palate.
Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterised by impulsive anger attacks that vary greatly across individuals in severity and consequence. Understanding IED subtypes has been limited by lack of large, general population datasets including assessment of IED. Using the 17-country World Mental Health surveys dataset, this study examined whether behavioural subtypes of IED are associated with differing patterns of comorbidity, suicidality and functional impairment.
IED was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in the World Mental Health surveys (n = 45 266). Five behavioural subtypes were created based on type of anger attack. Logistic regression assessed association of these subtypes with lifetime comorbidity, lifetime suicidality and 12-month functional impairment.
The lifetime prevalence of IED in all countries was 0.8% (s.e.: 0.0). The two subtypes involving anger attacks that harmed people (‘hurt people only’ and ‘destroy property and hurt people’), collectively comprising 73% of those with IED, were characterised by high rates of externalising comorbid disorders. The remaining three subtypes involving anger attacks that destroyed property only, destroyed property and threatened people, and threatened people only, were characterised by higher rates of internalising than externalising comorbid disorders. Suicidal behaviour did not vary across the five behavioural subtypes but was higher among those with (v. those without) comorbid disorders, and among those who perpetrated more violent assaults.
The most common IED behavioural subtypes in these general population samples are associated with high rates of externalising disorders. This contrasts with the findings from clinical studies of IED, which observe a preponderance of internalising disorder comorbidity. This disparity in findings across population and clinical studies, together with the marked heterogeneity that characterises the diagnostic entity of IED, suggests that it is a disorder that requires much greater research.
Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with one type of mental disorder have an increased risk of subsequently developing other types of mental disorders. This study aimed to undertake a comprehensive analysis of pair-wise lifetime comorbidity across a range of common mental disorders based on a diverse range of population-based surveys.
The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed 145 990 adult respondents from 27 countries. Based on retrospectively-reported age-of-onset for 24 DSM-IV mental disorders, associations were examined between all 548 logically possible temporally-ordered disorder pairs. Overall and time-dependent hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Absolute risks were estimated using the product-limit method. Estimates were generated separately for men and women.
Each prior lifetime mental disorder was associated with an increased risk of subsequent first onset of each other disorder. The median HR was 12.1 (mean = 14.4; range 5.2–110.8, interquartile range = 6.0–19.4). The HRs were most prominent between closely-related mental disorder types and in the first 1–2 years after the onset of the prior disorder. Although HRs declined with time since prior disorder, significantly elevated risk of subsequent comorbidity persisted for at least 15 years. Appreciable absolute risks of secondary disorders were found over time for many pairs.
Survey data from a range of sites confirms that comorbidity between mental disorders is common. Understanding the risks of temporally secondary disorders may help design practical programs for primary prevention of secondary disorders.
Mental disorders are associated with lower subjective social status (SSS), but a more nuanced understanding of this relationship is needed. We examined the influence of disorder age of onset and recency on SSS and studied whether mental disorders are also associated with the discrepancy between actual and desired SSS.
Data are from the baseline and second wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). Mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), while both actual and desired SSS were assessed with a ten-rung ladder. Linear regression was used to examine the association between mental disorders and SSS.
Of 5303 participants, 2237 had a lifetime mental disorder at baseline. These participants reported significantly lower actual SSS (6.28) at follow-up than healthy participants (6.66, B = −0.38 [95% CI −0.48 to −0.27], p < 0.001) and a significantly greater actual-desired SSS discrepancy (1.14 v. 1.05 after controlling for actual SSS, B = 0.09 [0.01–0.17], p = 0.024). Lower age of onset of the first mental disorder was marginally significantly associated with lower actual SSS (B = 0.006 [0.000–0.012], p = 0.046). More recent disorders were also associated with lower actual SSS (B = 0.015 [0.005–0.026], p = 0.005), such that participants whose disorder remitted ⩾6 years before baseline were statistically indistinguishable from healthy participants.
Lifetime mental disorders are associated with lower actual SSS and a slightly greater discrepancy between actual and desired SSS. However, people with mental disorders in (long-term) remission have a similar social status as healthy participants.
Studies investigating the underlying mechanisms of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia suggest that an imbalance in top-down expectations v. bottom-up processing underlies these errors in perception. This study evaluates this hypothesis by testing if individuals drawn from the general population who have had auditory hallucinations (AH) have more misperceptions in auditory language perception than those who have never hallucinated.
We used an online survey to determine the presence of hallucinations. Participants filled out the Questionnaire for Psychotic Experiences and participated in an auditory verbal recognition task to assess both correct perceptions (hits) and misperceptions (false alarms). A hearing test was performed to screen for hearing problems.
A total of 5115 individuals from the general Dutch population participated in this study. Participants who reported AH in the week preceding the test had a higher false alarm rate in their auditory perception compared with those without such (recent) experiences. The more recent the AH were experienced, the more mistakes participants made. While the presence of verbal AH (AVH) was predictive for false alarm rate in auditory language perception, the presence of non-verbal or visual hallucinations were not.
The presence of AVH predicted false alarm rate in auditory language perception, whereas the presence of non-verbal auditory or visual hallucinations was not, suggesting that enhanced top-down processing does not transfer across modalities. More false alarms were observed in participants who reported more recent AVHs. This is in line with models of enhanced influence of top-down expectations in persons who hallucinate.
The present study aimed to conduct a process evaluation of a multicomponent nutritional telemonitoring intervention implemented among Dutch community-dwelling older adults.
A mixed-methods approach was employed, guided by the process evaluation framework of the Medical Research Council and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. The process indicators reach, dose, fidelity and acceptability were measured at several time points within the 6-month intervention among participants and/or nurses.
The intervention was implemented in the context of two care organisations in the Netherlands.
In total, ninety-seven participants (average age 78 years) participated in the intervention and eight nurses were involved in implementation.
About 80 % of participants completed the intervention. Dropouts were significantly older, had worse cognitive and physical functioning, and were more care-dependent. The intervention was largely implemented as intended and received well by participants (satisfaction score 4·1, scale 1–5), but less well by nurses (satisfaction score 3·5, scale 1–5). Participants adhered better to weight telemonitoring than to telemonitoring by means of questionnaires, for which half the participants needed help. Intention to use the intervention was predicted by performance expectancy (β=0·40; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·67) and social influence (β=0·17; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·34). No association between process indicators and intervention outcomes was found.
This process evaluation showed that nutritional telemonitoring among older adults is feasible and accepted by older adults, but nurses’ satisfaction should be improved. The study provided relevant insights for future development and implementation of eHealth interventions among older adults.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention including nutritional telemonitoring, nutrition education, and follow-up by a nurse on nutritional status, diet quality, appetite, physical functioning and quality of life of Dutch community-dwelling elderly. We used a parallel arm pre-test post-test design with 214 older adults (average age 80 years) who were allocated to the intervention group (n 97) or control group (n 107), based on the municipality. The intervention group received a 6-month intervention including telemonitoring measurements, nutrition education and follow-up by a nurse. Effect measurements took place at baseline, after 4·5 months, and at the end of the study. The intervention improved nutritional status of participants at risk of undernutrition (β (T1)=2·55; 95 % CI 1·41, 3·68; β (T2)=1·77; 95 % CI 0·60, 2·94) and scores for compliance with Dutch guidelines for the intake of vegetables (β=1·27; 95 % CI 0·49, 2·05), fruit (β=1·24; 95 % CI 0·60, 1·88), dietary fibre (β=1·13; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·57), protein (β=1·20; 95 % CI 0·15, 2·24) and physical activity (β=2·13; 95 % CI 0·98, 3·29). The intervention did not have an effect on body weight, appetite, physical functioning and quality of life. In conclusion, this intervention leads to improved nutritional status in older adults at risk of undernutrition, and to improved diet quality and physical activity levels of community-dwelling elderly. Future studies with a longer duration should focus on older adults at higher risk of undernutrition than this study population to investigate whether the impact of the intervention on nutritional and functional outcomes can be improved.
Africa may be heading for an era of genomics medicine. There are also expectations that genomics may play a role in reducing global health inequities. However, the near lack of genomics studies on African populations has led to concerns that genomics may widen, rather than close, the global health inequity gap. To prevent a possible genomics divide, the genomics ‘revolution’ has been extended to Africa. This is motivated, in part, by Africa's rich genetic diversity and high disease burden. What remains unclear, however, are the prospects of using genomics technology for healthcare in Africa. In this qualitative study, we explored the views of 17 genomics researchers in Africa on the prospects and challenges of genomics medicine in Africa. Interviewees were researchers in Africa who were involved in genomics research projects in Africa. Analysis of in-depth interviews suggest that genomics medicine may have an impact on disease surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. However, Africa's capacity for genomics medicine, current research priorities in genomics and the translation of research findings will be key defining factors impacting on the ability of genomics medicine to improve healthcare in Africa.
The ability to predict upper respiratory infections (URI), lower respiratory infections (LRI), and gastrointestinal tract infections (GI) in independently living older persons would greatly benefit population and individual health. Social network parameters have so far not been included in prediction models. Data were obtained from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (N = 3074, mean age (±s.d.) 59.8 ± 8.3, 48.8% women). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to develop prediction models for self-reported symptomatic URI, LRI, and GI (past 2 months). We determined performance of the models by quantifying measures of discriminative ability and calibration. Overall, 953 individuals (31.0%) reported URI, 349 (11.4%) LRI, and 380 (12.4%) GI. The area under the curve was 64.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 62.6–66.8%) for URI, 71.1% (95% CI 68.4–73.8) for LRI, and 64.2% (95% CI 61.3–67.1%) for GI. All models had good calibration (based on visual inspection of calibration plot, and Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test). Social network parameters were strong predictors for URI, LRI, and GI. Using social network parameters in prediction models for URI, LRI, and GI seems highly promising. Such parameters may be used as potential determinants that can be addressed in a practical intervention in older persons, or in a predictive tool to compute an individual's probability of infections.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is increasingly recognized as a growing public health issue worldwide. Although more research is needed on both the diagnosis and treatment of FASD, and a broader and more culturally diverse range of services are needed to support those who suffer from FASD and their families, both research and practice for FASD raise significant ethical issues. In response, from the point of view of both research and clinical neuroethics, we provide a framework that emphasizes the need to maximize benefits and minimize harm, promote justice, and foster respect for persons within a global context.
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota has been identified as an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that can be horizontally transferred to pathogenic species. Maternal GIT microbes can be transmitted to the offspring, and recent work indicates that such transfer starts before birth. We have used culture-independent genetic screenings to explore whether ARGs are already present in the meconium accumulated in the GIT during fetal life and in feces of 1-week-old infants. We have analyzed resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (BLr) and tetracycline (Tcr), screening for a variety of genes conferring each. To evaluate whether ARGs could have been inherited by maternal transmission, we have screened perinatal fecal samples of the 1-week-old babies’ mothers, as well as a mother–infant series including meconium, fecal samples collected through the infant’s 1st year, maternal fecal samples and colostrum. Our results reveal a high prevalence of BLr and Tcr in both meconium and early fecal samples, implying that the GIT resistance reservoir starts to accumulate even before birth. We show that ARGs present in the mother may reach the meconium and colostrum and establish in the infant GIT, but also that some ARGs were likely acquired from other sources. Alarmingly, we identified in both meconium and 1-week-olds’ samples a particularly elevated prevalence of mecA (>45%), six-fold higher than that detected in the mothers. The mecA gene confers BLr to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and although its detection does not imply the presence of this pathogen, it does implicate the young infant’s GIT as a noteworthy reservoir of this gene.
Thyroglossal duct cysts and obstructive sleep apnoea are commonly occurring medical conditions which appear to present independently in patients. However, we noted three cases where the thyroglossal duct cysts influenced the development and/or therapy of obstructive sleep apnoea. In this article, these three case studies are presented, as is a study of the association between thyroglossal duct cysts and obstructive sleep apnoea, preceded by a literature review.
The patient in the first case study underwent hyoidthyroidpexia for obstructive sleep apnoea, which revealed an unexpected thyroglossal duct cyst. The second patient had previously undergone Sistrunk surgery for the removal of a thyroglossal duct cyst and subsequently presented with obstructive sleep apnoea. Finally, the third patient, who had previously undergone Sistrunk surgery, presented with obstructive sleep apnoea and underwent alternative surgery as hyoidthyroidpexia was no longer possible.
To our knowledge, the association between thyroglossal duct cysts and obstructive sleep apnoea has not been addressed previously. The results indicate that the relationship is much stronger than previously thought, and further research is required to investigate the extent of the association and possible causal relations.
We have obtained long slit spectra of 3C 67 and 3C 277.1 with the HST/STIS spectrograph. We present our preliminary results on the diagnostic emission line ratios along the radio source axes in 3C 67 and 3C 277.1.
We have obtained HST/STIS long slit spectroscopy of the aligned emission line nebulae in three compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio sources — 3C 67, 3C 277.1, and 3C 303.1. We find systematic offsets (˜300–500 kms) of the emission line velocities on one or both sides of the radio sources. We also see evidence for broad lines (FWHM ˜500 kms) and complex emission line profiles. In 3C 303.1 the data are consistent with multiple components and possibly split lines. The amplitude of the velocity variations is not so large as to exclude gravitationally-induced motions. However, the complex kinematics, the lack of a signature of Keplerian rotation, and the association of the velocity variations with the radio lobes are consistent with the observed ˜300–500 kms velocities being driven by the expansion of the radio source. Acceleration of the clouds by the bow shock is plausible given the estimated densities in the clouds and the velocities observed in the much smaller compact symmetric objects and with expansion velocities estimated from spectral ageing. This conclusion is unchanged if we consider the scenario in which the cloud acceleration is dominated by the post bow shock flow.
In the West, removal of the uvula is predominantly undertaken as part of palatal surgery, in cases of obstructive sleep apnoea. In the developing world, such as the Middle East and Africa, uvulectomy is a more common practice. The uvula is removed for curative or preventive purposes, or as part of ritual practice. Due to immigration from developing to developed world countries, and to Western doctors working abroad, such doctors are increasingly being confronted with unfamiliar traditional healing practices, within a medical context.
The Medline and Embase online databases were systematically searched for literature on traditional uvulectomy. We present a review of this literature. We also present the first report, to our best knowledge, of obstructive sleep apnoea as a late complication of traditional uvulectomy.
Traditional uvulectomy may be complicated by post-operative haemorrhage and local infections, among many other problems. We report cases of obstructive sleep apnoea and snoring caused by palatal stenosis resulting from traditional uvulectomy during childhood.