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The relationship between interatrial communication, ductus arteriosus, and pulmonary flow in transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum may help predict postnatal desaturation.
Echocardiographic data of 45 fetuses with transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum and 50 age-matched controls were retrospectively reviewed. Interatrial communication, left and right ventricular output, flow in the ductus arteriosus, as well as effective pulmonary flow were measured. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of postnatal saturations: group 1 had saturations ⩽50% and group 2 >50%.
Of 45 fetuses, 13 (26.7%) were classified into group 1. Compared with fetuses in group 2, they had a smaller interatrial communication (2.9 versus 4.0 mm, p=0.004) and more retrograde diastolic flow in the ductus arteriosus (92 versus 23%, p=0.002). Both groups showed a significant decrease in ductal flow compared with controls. Patients in group 2 had a higher effective pulmonary flow compared with controls. There was a mild correlation between left ventricular output and size of the interatrial communication (Spearman’s rank correlation 0.44).
A retrograde diastolic flow is present in most of the fetuses with postnatal desaturation. Fetuses with transposition of the great arteries have a lower flow through the ductus arteriosus compared with controls. Fetuses without restrictive foramen ovale have higher effective pulmonary flow. Peripheral pulmonary vasodilatation due to higher oxygen saturation in pulmonary arteries in the case of transposition of the great arteries could be one possible cause.
Background: Lesions of adjacent structures have been reported after closure of large atrial septal defects with the Amplatzer septal occluder. In children, growth of the heart should modify the initial relationship between the device and surrounding structures. Aim: To compare the relationship between large Amplatzer septal occluder and adjacent cardiac structures at short-, mid-, and long-term follow-up in at-risk paediatric population using echocardiography. Methods: A total of 25 children (4.6±2.9 years old, 18 girls) with the largest atrial septal defect devices implanted between 1997 and 2002 were enrolled prospectively for complete echocardiogram 17.8±10.5 months (mid-term follow-up) and 8.8±0.9 years (long-term follow-up) after the procedure. Results were compared with the echocardiogram carried out 2.1±3.4 days after the procedure (short-term follow-up). Results: The minimal distance between the left disk and the mitral valve increased: 1.4±2.0 mm at short-term and 5.1±2.3 mm at long-term follow-up (p<0.05), leading to less contact between the disk and the anterior leaflet and less mitral regurgitation (10 at short-term, 4 at long-term follow-up, p<0.05). The number of devices straddling the aorta decreased from 17 to 12 at long-term follow-up (p<0.05). There was protrusion of disk in the venous structure in seven patients on the first echocardiogram, which disappeared at long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Although frequently in close contact with the aortic root, mitral valve, or venous returns, large devices tend to centre and move away from the surrounding structures, with decreased risk for long-term distortion.
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