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Dimensional measurements from secondary electron (SE) images were compared with those from backscattered electron (BSE) and low-loss electron (LLE) images. With the commonly used 50% threshold criterion, the lines consistently appeared larger in the SE images. As the images were acquired simultaneously by an instrument with the capability to operate detectors for both signals at the same time, the differences cannot be explained by the assumption that contamination or drift between images affected the SE, BSE, or LLE images differently. Simulations with JMONSEL, an electron microscope simulator, indicate that the nanometer-scale differences observed on this sample can be explained by the different convolution effects of a beam with finite size on signals with different symmetry (the SE signal’s characteristic peak versus the BSE or LLE signal’s characteristic step). This effect is too small to explain the >100 nm discrepancies that were observed in earlier work on different samples. Additional modeling indicates that those discrepancies can be explained by the much larger sidewall angles of the earlier samples, coupled with the different response of SE versus BSE/LLE profiles to such wall angles.
We have investigated physical and electrical properties of Al2O3, HfO2, and their alloy films deposited on 300mm Si wafers by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). It is found that Al2O3 films are not crystallized even after the heat treatment of 1050°C, while HfO2 films are already crystallized even after a-Si deposition (530°C). The crystallization temperature can be higher by adding Al2O3 to HfO2. It is confirmed by in-plane XRD and plane views of TEM that HfAlOx films with lower Hf content (Hf/(Hf+Al) <30%) are amorphous without phase separation after annealing at 1050°C and 5sec. The dependences of equivalent oxide thicknesses (EOT) on the physical thicknesses of Al2O3, HfAlOx (Hf/(Hf+Al)∼22%), and HfO2 films in poly-silicon gate capacitors indicate that those dielectric constants k are ∼9, 14, and 23, respectively. The gate dielectric with EOT of 1.5nm and the leakage current density Jg of 3mA/cm2 can be fabricated with 2nm-thick HfAlOx (22%) film.
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